Scoring the BBTS

The BBTS can be scored in various ways. One way is to use it to group people into various categories (for instance: those with high betrayal experiences and those without). Another way is to create subscales such as a "high betrayal score" and a "low betrayal score" that can be then used to predict other variables such as dissociation or anxiety.

Some examples of these different approaches (full text of articles are posted at

Creating Categories of Participants:

Cromer, L.D. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). What influences believing abuse reports? The roles of depicted memory persistence, participant gender, trauma history, and sexism. Psychology of Women's Quarterly, 3, 13-22.

Becker-Blease, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2008). A Preliminary Study of ADHD Symptoms and Correlates: Do Abused Children Differ from Non-Abused Children? Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 17(1), 133-140.

Gobin, R.L. & Freyd, J.J. (2009). Betrayal and revictimization: Preliminary findings.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,1, 242-257.

Creating Subscales:

Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & Allard, C.B. (2005). Betrayal trauma: Relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(3), 83-104.

Kaehler, L.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2009). Borderline personality characteristics: A betrayal trauma approach.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 261-268.

Hulette, A.C., Kaehler, L.A., & Freyd, J.J. (2011).  Intergenerational Associations between Trauma and Dissociation.  Journal of Family Violence, 26, 217-225.

Suggested Categorization of BBTS Items into A) Three Scales (High, Medium, and Low Betrayal) or B) Two Scales (High/More Betrayal and Low/Less Betrayal)

A) Three Scales: Traumas with High, Medium, and Low Betrayal

Trauma with High Betrayal

Trauma with Medium Betrayal

Trauma with Low Betrayal

B) Two Scales: Traumas with High/More Betrayal and Low/Less Betrayal

Trauma with More Betrayal

Trauma with Less Betrayal

*Items from the BBTS-14

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Jennifer Freyd Last update 10-Mar-2011 ,
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