Scholarly and Scientific Research Relevant to Required Reporting
Note: I'm compiling information as it is sent to me. I have not verified all the information here. Please let me know of errors or missing research. JJF
On the perceptions of victims' advocates
- Moylan, C.A. (2016). “I Fear I’m a Checkbox”:
College and University Victim Advocates’ Perspectives of Campus Rape Reforms. Violence Against Women, published online before print July 6, 2016, doi: 10.1177/1077801216655623
On the role of violations of control in sexual assault and the need to reestablish a sense of control:
- Ahrens, C.E., Campbell, R., Ternier-Thames, N.K., Wasco, S.M., & Sefl, T. (2007). Deciding whom to tell: Expectations and outcomes of rape survivors’ first disclosures. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 38-49. (Abstract)
- Frazier, P. A. (2003). Perceived control and distress following sexual assault: A longitudinal test of a new model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1257–1269. (Abstract)
- Herman, J. L. (1997). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
- Ranjbar, V., & Speer, S. A. (2013). Revictimization and recovery from sexual assault: Implications for health professionals. Violence and Victims, 28, 274-287. (Abstract)
- Walsh, R. M., & Bruce, S. E. (2011). The relationships between perceived levels of control, psychological distress, and legal system variables in a sample of sexual assault survivors. Violence Against Women, 17(5), 603-618. (Abstract)
On the harm experienced by survivors in having their autonomy violated
- Campbell, R., Greeson, M. R., Bybee, D., & Fehler-Cabral, G. (2012). Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: Building community relationships to increase prosecution rates. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50, 141-154. (Abstract)
- Orchowski, L. M., Untied, A., & Gidycz, C. (2013). Social reactions to disclosure of sexual victimization and adjustment among survivors of sexual assault. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 2005-2023. (Abstract)
- Peter-Hagene, L., & Ullman, S. (2014). Social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and problem drinking: Mediating effects of perceived control and PTSD. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29, 1418-
On the probability survivor engages with the system once autonomy is violated
- Campbell, R., Greeson, M. R., Fehler-Cabral, G., & Kennedy, A. C. (2015). Pathways to help: Adolescent sexual assault victims’ disclosure and help-seeking experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 824-847. (Abstract)
- Patterson, D., & Campbell, R. (2010). Why rape survivors participate in the criminal justice system. Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 191-205. (Abstract)
- Zweig, J. M., & Burt, M. R. (2007). Predicting women’s perceptions of domestic violence and sexual assault agency helpfulness what matters to program clients? Violence Against Women, 13(11), 1149-1178. (doi:10.1177/1077801207307799)
On harm caused by institutional betrayal
- Rosenthal, M.N., Smidt, A.M., & Freyd, J.J. (2016) Still second class: Sexual harassment of women graduate students. Psychology of Women Quarterly. (Full Text)
- Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2013). Dangerous safe havens: Institutional betrayal exacerbates sexual trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 119–124. (Full Text)
- Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). Institutional betrayal. American Psychologist, 69, 575-587. (Full Text)
- More on institutional betrayal
On opinions of survivors regarding required reporting
Legal analyses regarding whether schools are obligated to designate everyone as a required reporter
- Gielen, Andrea Carlson et al. “Women’S Opinions About Domestic Violence Screening And Mandatory Reporting”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19.4 (2000): 279-285. Web. 29 Apr. 2016. (Abstract)
- NAESV National Alliance to End Sexual Violence (2016). Survivor survey on mandatory reporting. Retrieved from http://endsexualviolence.org/where-we-stand/survivor-survey-on-mandatory-reporting
- Sullivan, C. M. “Survivors’ Opinions About Mandatory Reporting Of Domestic Violence And Sexual Assault By Medical Professionals”. Affilia 20.3 (2005): 346-361. Web. 29 Apr. 2016. (Abstract)
- Cantalupo, N.C. "For the Title IX Civil Rights Movement: Congratulations and Cautions," The Yale Law Journal, Volume 125,
19 Feb 2016.
- Jackson, V.C. Harvard Law School, Reporter, “Project on Sexual and Gender-Based Misconduct on Campus: Procedural Frameworks and Analysis,” The American Law Institute, Preliminary Draft No. 1, October 23, 2015, at 16.
- Engle, J."Mandatory Reporting of Campus Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence: Moving to a Victim-Centric Protocol that Comports with Federal Law", 2015, Penn State eLibrary
Office of Civil Rights -- Department of Education
- The OCR’s 2014 Q&A document affirms university discretion: ( 1) OCR defines the role of responsible employee as someone with the authority or responsibility to redress sexual violence or someone a student could reasonably think has the responsibility or authority, and (2) OCR states “A school must make clear to all of its employees and students which staff members are responsible employees so that students can make informed decisions about whether to disclose information to those employees.”
Guidance from EEOC -- Regarding Title VII and Graduate students who are also employees:
From the EEOC guidance at https://www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/harassment.html.
An individual qualifies as an employee’s “supervisor” if:
- the individual has authority to undertake or recommend tangible employment decisions affecting the employee;
the individual has authority to direct the employee’s daily work activities.
This EEOC guidance then goes into detail about what both of these components mean.