Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ)

Carly P. Smith and Jennifer J. Freyd, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon


What is the IBQ?

Carly Smith and Jennifer Freyd have been developing the Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ) to measure institutional betrayal regarding sexual assault. The IBQ is designed to measure institutional betrayal that occurs leading up to or following a sexual assault (e.g., [The institution] "... created an environment where sexual assault seemed like no big deal"; "... responded inadequately to reports of sexual assault"). The IBQ also measures identification with the institution and prompts for a description of the institution involved. This version of the IBQ is meant to be administered following some measure of traumatic or undesirable experiences. The instructions refer to these experiences when asking about institutional betrayal. We expect to continue to develop this instrument. Please check back here for the latest information.

Preliminary findings using the IBQ (and current citations for IBQ)

Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). Dangerous Safe Havens: Institutional Betrayal Exacerbates Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 119-124.

Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (November, 2011a). Nowhere to Turn: Institutional Betrayal Exacerbates Traumatic Aftermath of Sexual Assault.  Poster presented at the 27th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS), Baltimore, Maryland, 3-5 November 2011.
Link to Abstract. Link to Full Poster: Institutional Betrayal

Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (November 2011b). Institutional Betrayal: Violations of members' trust surrounding incidents of sexual assault.  Poster presented at the 28th annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation, Montreal, Canada, 5-7 November 2011.
Link to Abstract. Link to Full Poster: Institutional Betrayal

Copyright, Use, and Permission Statement

Note: The following materials were used in the research cited above. They are all copyright, 2011, Carly P. Smith and Jennifer J. Freyd. They are available for attributed public use under a Creative Commons CC-BY-ND 3.0 license. We would appreciate being notified of your planned use that is consistent with the Creative Commons license.  If you wish to copy, distribute, or otherwise re-use these materials or to modify them, please first contact Carly P. Smith for reprint permission.

Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ)

This questionnaire will ask you to think about larger institutions to which you belong or have belonged, which may or may not call to mind specific individuals.  This may include large systems such as a university, the military, the Greek System (i.e., the Fraternity/Sorority System as a whole), or an organized religion.  Additionally, this can refer to parts of these systems such as a campus dormitory, a military unit, a specific fraternity or sorority, or a particular church.  

In thinking about the events you described experiencing in the previous section, did an institution play a role by (please check all that apply)...

1. Not taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?

2. Creating an environment in which this type of experience/s seemed common or like  no big deal?

3. Creating an environment in which this experience seemed more likely to occur?

4. Making it difficult to report the experience/s?

5. Responding inadequately to the experience/s, if reported?

6. Covering up the experience/s?

7. Punishing you in some way for this experience (e.g., loss of privileges or status)?

8. Prior to this experience, was this an institution or organization you strongly identified with or felt a part of?

9. Are you still part of this institution or organization?
N/A          Yes               No

10. Please indicate the type of institution involved (check one or more):
Greek System
Team/Sports Club
Other, Please describe:

11. Did you tell anyone about your experience/s?
N/A      Yes       No

12. If you told anyone about your experience/s, who did you tell?

13. If you told anyone about your experience/s, how did they react?

14. Please briefly described what occurred:

Also see: