The Institutional Courage Questionnaire (ICQ)

ICQ-Individual
ICQ-Climate

(Smidt & Freyd, 2019)

 

Institutional Courage - The Concept

Institutional Courage is an institution’s commitment to seek the truth and engage in moral action, despite unpleasantness, risk, and short-term cost. It is a pledge to protect and care for those who depend on the institution. It is a compass oriented to the common good of individuals, the institution, and the world. It is a force that transforms institutions into more accountable, equitable, effective places for everyone. From the Center for Institutional Courage.

History: Institutional Courage was the term Freyd, 2014 initially introduced as the antidote to institutional betrayal. For more on institutional courage including specific steps to take, see Freyd, 2018 and Freyd & Smidt, 2019.

10-Steps to Promote Institutional Courage (Based on Freyd, 2018)

  1. Comply with laws and go beyond mere compliance; beware risk management mindset
  2. Educate institutional community (especially leadership)
  3. Respond well to victim disclosures (& create a trauma-informed reporting policy)
  4. Bear witness, be accountable, apologize
  5. Cherish the truth tellers
  6. Conduct scientifically-sound anonymous surveys
  7. Regularly engage in self-study
  8. Be transparent about data and policy
  9. Use the organization to address the societal problem
  10. Commit on-going resources to 1-9

 

Institutional Courage - The Measurement

Insttitutional courage is a broad concept that can be applied across many different types of institutitions and in consideration of many different types of behaviors. Our initial measurement effort focused specifically on corportate institutions and the consideration of sexual harassment experienced by employees in the context of their company. A modified version focused on sexual assault of students within universities. Much more measurement development is needed. (See theCenter for Institutional Courage.)

Introducing the ICQ (and ICQ-Individual and ICQ-Climate) for Employees

In 2018 Alec Smidt and Jennifer Freyd began been developing the Institutional Courge Questionnaire (IBQ) to measure institutional courage regarding sexual harassment in an employment context. The particular items were created in part based on the 10-steps toward institutional courage presented in Freyd, 2018 listed above.

ICQ Version References

ICQ-Individual and ICQ-Climate for Employees (Smidt & Freyd, 2019)

Smidt, A. & Freyd, J.J. (in preparation). Institutional courage buffers against institutional betrayal following workplace sexual harassment for employee outcomes.

ICQ-Individual-Victimized, ICQ-Individual-Not-Victimized, and ICQ-Climate for University Students

Modified version of Smidt & Freyd, 2019 to be introduced in: Adams-Clark, A.A, Barnes, M, Smidt, A. & Freyd, J.J. (in preparation) Institutional Betrayal, Institutional Courage, and Trauma Symptoms Among Undergraduates Experiencing Campus Sexual Violence.

Copyright, Use, and Permission Statement

Note: The following materials were used in the research cited above. They are all copyright, Alec M. Smidt and Jennifer J. Freyd. They are available for attributed public use under a Creative Commons CC-BY-ND 3.0 license. We would appreciate being notified of your planned use that is consistent with the Creative Commons license.  If you wish to copy, distribute, or otherwise re-use these materials or to modify them, please first contact Alec Smidt for permission.

ICQ-Individual and ICQ-Climate for Employees (Smidt & Freyd, 2019)

Smidt, A. & Freyd, J.J. (in preparation). Institutional courage buffers against institutional betrayal following workplace sexual harassment for employee outcomes.

INSTITUTIONAL COURAGE QUESTIONNAIRE-INDIVIDUAL
In the previous sections, you told us you had the following experiences at your current workplace within the past year: [pipe-in sexual harassment items endorsed]

In thinking about the events related to the experiences described above, did your employer play a role by (check all that apply)...

(Response options: Yes, No, Not Applicable)

  1. Taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?
  2. Making it easy to report the experience?
  3. Responding adequately to the experience, if reported?
  4. Handled your case well, if disciplinary action was requested?
  5. Not covering up the experience?
  6. Rewarding you in some way for reporting the experience (e.g., a public commendation, internal award, a raise in salary, a bonus, or some other type of formal or informal award [e.g., a supervisor or other individual in a leadership role saying, “that’s brave to do”] award)?
  7. Suggesting that reporting your experience would help your place of employment better itself?
  8. Creating an environment where you felt like a valued member of your place of employment?
  9. Creating an environment where continued employment was no more difficult for you than before you reported the experience?
  10. Supporting you with either formal or informal resources (e.g., counseling, meetings, phone calls, or other services) following your report of this experience?
  11. One or more individuals at your place of employment apologized, either formally or informally, for what happened to you?
  12. Creating an environment where continued employment was no more difficult for you than before the experience occurred?
  13. One or more of your coworkers (who are not in a position of authority over you) with whom you shared the experience stated or demonstrated they believed you that the experience happened?
  14. One or more supervisors/HR managers/higher management to whom you reported the experience stated or demonstrated they believed your report that the experience happened?
  15. Your employer allowed you to have a say in how your report was handled?
  16. Your employer met your needs for workplace support and accommodations (e.g., reassigning you to another supervisor if your supervisor perpetrated the sexual harassment; if your coworker perpetrated the sexual harassment and shared a cubicle/office space with you, the coworker was moved out of your shared space)?
  17. Your employer created an environment where this type of experience was safe to discuss?
  18. Your employer created an environment where this type of experience was recognized as a problem?

INSTITUTIONAL COURAGE QUESTIONNAIRE-CLIMATE

Note: To be completed by participants about their employer regardless of sexual harassment experiences

Instructions: Consider your current employer and how it operates with regard to sexual harassment. Then, please answer the following questions.

1. [Sexual harassment policy screen] Does your employer have a sexual harassment policy?

1a. [If yes to #1, display this question] Please tell us more about your employer's sexual harassment policy, and if the policy includes any of the following (check all that apply):

 

Yes

No

I don't know

1a1. A definition of sexual harassment

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1a2. A statement that sexual harassment is not permitted within your workplace

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1a3. An outline of the consequences for engaging in sexually harassing behavior

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1b. [If yes to #1, display this question] How does your employer make available their workplace sexual harassment policy? Check all that apply:

 

1c. [If yes to #1, display this question] Does your employer state (e.g., in a mission statement or other written statement or policy) that they will comply with their own policies with respect to sexual harassment?

1d. [If yes to #1, display this question] Does your employer demonstrate (i.e., your employer actually behaves this way) that they comply with their own policies with respect to sexual harassment?

2.  Does your employer compile de-identified data (i.e., with identifying information removed to protect the privacy of individuals who have reported experiences of sexual harassment) about incidents of sexual harassment that occur at your employer? In other words, does your employer track information about incidents of sexual harassment that occur?

3.  Does your employer make available de-identified data (i.e., with identifying information removed to protect the privacy of individuals who have reported experiences of sexual harassment) about incidents of sexual harassment that occur at your employer in the following ways:

4.  In its hiring and recruitment processes, does your employer ask potential employees if they were previously disciplined related to an incident of sexual harassment?

5. Does your employer, in checking the references of potential employees, ask a prospective employee’s previous employers about previous incidents of workplace sexual harassment for which the potential employee was disciplined?

6. Does your employer commit resources to combatting/reducing workplace sexual harassment? 

Examples include:
-Universities financially supporting research projects (e.g., paying summer salaries for researchers or for research participant compensation) looking at ways to reduce sexual harassment.
-A movie studio financing a documentary about employees’ experiences with workplace sexual harassment.
-A web design company offering to create a free website for a non-profit organization that helps victims of sexual harassment.

7.  Does your employer reward reporters of sexual harassment (i.e., employees who report that they have been sexually harassed)?

A reward could include a public commendation, internal awards (like a plaque, certificate, etc.), a raise in salary, a bonus, or some other type of formal or informal reward (such as a supervisor or other individual in a leadership role saying, “that’s brave to do”)?

8.

 

   Yes

No

I don't know

8a. Does your employer conduct regular (i.e., at least annually) focus groups on issues related to sexual harassment (such as addressing organizational climate and responses surrounding sexual harassment)?

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8b. Does your employer have an internal committee charged with addressing issues related to sexual harassment (such as organizational climate/culture and responses surrounding sexual harassment)?

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8c. Does your employer conduct a regular (i.e., at least annually) training course or seminar on issues related to sexual harassment?

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9. Does your employer have a process for reporting an experience of sexual harassment? For example, this process could be outlined in a document, website, or some other means.

9a. [If yes to #9, display this question]You mentioned that your employer has a process for reporting an experience of sexual harassment. 
Are the details of this process available internally or externally? 

10. Does your employer conduct regular (i.e., at least annual) surveys about issues related to sexual harassment, such as asking about employee experiences of sexual harassment, organizational responses to those experiences, and/or organizational climate surrounding sexual harassment?

10a. [If yes to #10, display this question]Please tell us a bit more about the survey(s) that your employer conducts about issues related to sexual harassment (check all that apply):

 

Yes

No

I don't know

10a1.The survey(s) asks about employee experiences of sexual harassment (i.e., allowing you and other employees to mark whether or not you’ve had an experience of sexual harassment)

 

 

 

10a2. The survey(s) asks about organizational responses to those experiences (i.e., how your employer responded to this type of experience happening to you)

 

 

 

10a3. The survey(s) asks about the organizational climate or culture surrounding sexual harassment (i.e., your and other employees’ opinions on whether your workplace climate or culture, for example, creates an environment where sexual harassment is tolerated OR, on the other hand, where sexual harassment is taken seriously and is not tolerated)

 

 

 

10a4. The survey(s) is anonymous (i.e., as part of the introduction to the survey, or stated somewhere else in the survey, that your responses are anonymous, meaning that there is no way to link your survey responses to your identity)

 

 

 

10a5.The survey(s) is NOT anonymous but IS confidential (i.e., it is stated somewhere in the survey that your responses are confidential, meaning that there is some possibility of linking your identity [like a zip code or employee number] with your responses BUT that your responses will be kept confidential)

 

 

 

10a6. The survey(s) is NOT anonymous and NOT confidential (i.e., it is not stated anywhere in the survey or in the materials related to it [like an email invitation to apply] that your responses will be kept confidential)

 

 

 

10a7. The survey(s) collects your and other employees’ identities (i.e., your employee ID number, initials, birthdate, or some other identifier) and is NOT confidential (i.e., it is not stated anywhere in the survey or in the materials related to it [like an email invitation to apply] that your responses will be kept confidential)

 

 

 

10b. [If yes to #10, display this question] How confident do you feel in the assurances given about the confidentiality/anonymity of your responses? 


For example, if your employer's survey stated that your responses would be anonymous, how confident do you feel that your responses will be kept anonymous? 


Similarly, if the survey stated that your responses weren't anonymous but would be kept confidential, how confident do you feel that your responses would be kept confidential?

 

Not confident at all (1)

Slightly confident (2)

Moderately confident (3)

Very confident (4)

Extremely confident (5)

 

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10c. [If yes to #10, display this question]
Thinking about the survey(s) that your employer conducts related to issues of sexual harassment, how likely do you think it would be that your employer would retaliate against you if they linked your survey responses with your identity?
For example, imagine you completed the survey(s) your company conducts about sexual harassment. In that survey, you reported that sexual harassment is really pervasive in your employer’s. You may even have named a specific manager who is the most problematic. Given this scenario, how likely do you think it would be that your employer would retaliate against you (e.g., a reprimand from your supervisor or a demotion) for reporting these issues on the survey?

 

Extremely unlikely (1)

Somewhat unlikely (2)

Neither likely nor unlikely (3)

Somewhat likely (4)

Extremely likely (5)

  

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10d. [If yes to #10, display this question]
The survey(s) your employer conducts collects the following demographic or other information from you and other employees (check all that apply):

10e. [If yes to #10, display this question]
How many times per year does your employer conduct a survey on issues related to sexual harassment?
________________________________________________________________

 

11. Consider the individuals who are in leadership roles at your employer. 
Please tell us how well each of these statements describe the individuals in leadership roles (thinking of those individuals as a whole) at your employer.

 

Does not describe those in leadership roles (1)

Describes those in leadership roles slightly well (2)

Describes those in leadership roles moderately well (3)

Describes those in leadership roles very well (4)

Describes those in leadership roles extremely well (5)

11a. Demonstrate an understanding about the different forms workplace sexual harassment can take (e.g., that sexual harassment can include a range of behaviors, from others making offensive sexist remarks to a supervisor implying faster promotions or better treatment if you engaged in sexual activities with them).

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11b. Demonstrate an understanding about how victims of workplace sexual harassment might respond (e.g., being hesitant to report the incident, etc.).

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Demonstrate effective communication about issues related to sexual harassment.

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11c. Demonstrate an understanding of the expected psychological and physical harms that could result from sexual harassment.

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12. Is there anything else you wish to tell us about these questions about your workplace? This could include experiences or other information that was not captured above, or any other thoughts you may have at this moment.

 

ICQ-Individual-Victimized, ICQ-Individual-Not-Victimized, and ICQ-Climate for University Students

Modified version of Smidt & Freyd, 2019 to be introduced in: Adams-Clark, A.A, Barnes, M, Smidt, A. & Freyd, J.J. (in preparation) Institutional Betrayal, Institutional Courage, and Trauma Symptoms Among Undergraduates Experiencing Campus Sexual Violence.

ICQ-Individual-Victimized- For student participants reporting on-campus sexual trauma

Instructions: This questionnaire will ask you to think about larger institutions to which you belong or have belonged, which may or may not call to mind specific individuals.  This may include large systems such as a university, the military, the Greek System (i.e., the Fraternity/Sorority System as a whole), or an organized religion.  Additionally, this can refer to parts of these systems such as a campus dormitory, a military unit, a specific fraternity or sorority, or a particular church.  

Response options - Yes/No/Not Applicable

Taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?                                                   
Making it easy to report this experience?                                                      
Responding adequately to the experience, if reported?                                                        
Handled your case well, if disciplinary action was requested?                                                         
Not covering up the experience?                                                       
Rewarding you in some way for reporting the experience (e.g., a commendation or some other type of formal or informal award [e.g., a faculty/staff member, administrator, or other individual in a leadership role saying, “that’s brave to do”])?                                                           
Suggesting that reporting your experience would help your university better itself?
Creating an environment where you felt like a valued member of your university?
Creating an environment where continued education was no more difficult for you than before you reported the experience?                                                    
Supporting you with either formal or informal resources (e.g., counseling, meetings, phone calls, or other services) following your report of this experience?                                                      
One or more individuals at your university apologized, either formally or informally, for what happened to you?                                    
Creating an environment where continued education was no more difficult for you than before the experience occurred?                                                       
One or more of your peers (who are not in a position of authority over you) with whom you shared the experience stated or demonstrated they believed you that the experience happened?
One or more faculty/staff members or administrators to whom you reported the experience stated or demonstrated they believed your report that the experience happened?     
Your university allowed you to have a say in how your report was handled?
Your university met your needs for educational support and accommodations (e.g., reassigning you to another professor/supervisor if your professor/supervisor perpetrated the sexual harassment; if your peer perpetrated the sexual harassment and shared a classroom or dormitory with you, the peer was moved out of your shared space)?
Your university created an environment where this type of experience was safe to discuss?
Your university created an environment where this type of experience was recognized as a problem?

Prior to this experience, was this an institution or organization you strongly identified with or felt a part of? Yes/No/Not Applicable

Are you still part of this institution or organization? Yes/No/Not Applicable

Please indicate the type of institution involved (Check one or more):
University/College                                         
Dormitory/Housinge                                      
Greek System                                     
Sorority                                              
Fraternity                                           
Church                                               
Military                                              
Team/Sports Club

To what extent do you think the institution’s role helped you recover from your unwanted sexual experience? Not at all/A little/A moderate amount/A lot/A great deal

To what extent do you think the institution’s role impeded your recovery from your unwanted sexual experience? Not at all/A little/A moderate amount/A lot/A great deal

 

ICQ-Individual-Not-Victimized, for student participants NOT reporting on-campus sexual trauma

Instructions: This questionnaire will ask you to think about larger institutions to which you belong or have belonged, which may or may not call to mind specific individuals.  This may include large systems such as a university, the military, the Greek System (i.e., the Fraternity/Sorority System as a whole), or an organized religion.  Additionally, this can refer to parts of these systems such as a campus dormitory, a military unit, a specific fraternity or sorority, or a particular church.  

The following are ways in which an institution may play a role in unwanted sexual experiences. Which of the following do you think would impact your experience of reporting an unwanted sexual experience to an institution?

Response options – Yes- this would impact my experience/No- this would not impact my experience

Taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?                                                   
Making it easy to report this experience?                                                      
Responding adequately to the experience, if reported?                                                        
Handled your case well, if disciplinary action was requested?                                                         
Not covering up the experience?                                                       
Rewarding you in some way for reporting the experience (e.g., a commendation or some other type of formal or informal award [e.g., a faculty/staff member, administrator, or other individual in a leadership role saying, “that’s brave to do”])?                                                           
Suggesting that reporting your experience would help your university better itself?
Creating an environment where you felt like a valued member of your university?
Creating an environment where continued education was no more difficult for you than before you reported the experience?                                                    
Supporting you with either formal or informal resources (e.g., counseling, meetings, phone calls, or other services) following your report of this experience?                                                      
One or more individuals at your university apologized, either formally or informally, for what happened to you?                                                
Creating an environment where continued education was no more difficult for you than before the experience occurred?                                                       
One or more of your peers (who are not in a position of authority over you) with whom you shared the experience stated or demonstrated they believed you that the experience happened?
One or more faculty/staff members or administrators to whom you reported the experience stated or demonstrated they believed your report that the experience happened?     
Your university allowed you to have a say in how your report was handled?
Your university met your needs for educational support and accommodations (e.g., reassigning you to another professor/supervisor if your professor/supervisor perpetrated the sexual harassment; if your peer perpetrated the sexual harassment and shared a classroom or dormitory with you, the peer was moved out of your shared space)?
Your university created an environment where this type of experience was safe to discuss?
Your university created an environment where this type of experience was recognized as a problem?
To what extent do you think an institution’s role could help you recover from your unwanted sexual experience? Not at all/A little/A moderate amount/A lot/A great deal

To what extent do you think an institution’s role could impede your recovery from your unwanted sexual experience? Not at all/A little/A moderate amount/A lot/A great deal

 

ICQ-Climate, for ALL student particpants

Instructions:  Consider the University of Oregon and how it operates with regard to sexual assault. Then, please answer the following questions. 

Response options – Yes/No/I don’t know

Does the University of Oregon have a sexual assault policy?

Does the University of Oregon compile de-identified data (i.e., with identifying information removed to protect the privacy of individuals who have reported experiences of sexual assault) about incidents of sexual assault that occur at the university? In other words, does the University of Oregon track information about incidents of sexual assault that occur?

In its application and acceptance processes, does the University of Oregon ask potential students if they were previously disciplined related to an incident of sexual assault?

Does the University of Oregon, in checking the references of potential students, ask a prospective student’s previous schools about previous incidents of sexual assault for which the potential student was disciplined?

Does the University of Oregon commit resources to combatting/reducing sexual assault?
Examples include:
-Universities financially supporting research projects (e.g., paying summer salaries for researchers or for research participant compensation) looking at ways to reduce sexual assault.

Does the University of Oregon reward reporters of sexual assault (i.e., students who report that they have been sexually assaulted)? A reward could include a public commendation, internal awards (like a plaque, certificate, etc.), or some other type of formal or informal reward (such as an administrator or other individual in a leadership role saying, “that’s brave to do”)?

Does the University of Oregon conduct regular (i.e., at least annually) focus groups on issues related to sexual assault (such as addressing university climate and responses surrounding sexual assault)?    

Does the University of Oregon have an internal committee charged with addressing issues related to sexual assault (such as organizational climate/culture and responses surrounding sexual assault)?

Does the University of Oregon conduct a regular (i.e., at least annually) training course or seminar on issues related to sexual assault?

Does the University of Oregon have a process for reporting an experience of sexual assault? For example, this process could be outlined in a document, website, or some other means.

Does the University of Oregon conduct regular (i.e., at least annual) surveys about issues related to sexual assault, such as asking about student experiences of sexual assault, university responses to those experiences, and/or university

 

Also see: