Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ) and Institutional Betrayal and Support Questionnaire (IBSQ)

Carly P. Smith and Jennifer J. Freyd, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon

 

What is the IBQ (and IBQ-H and IBSQ)?

Carly Smith and Jennifer Freyd have been developing the Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ) to measure institutional betrayal regarding sexual assault. The IBQ is designed to measure institutional betrayal that occurs leading up to or following a sexual assault (e.g., [The institution] "... created an environment where sexual assault seemed like no big deal"; "... responded inadequately to reports of sexual assault"). The IBQ also measures identification with the institution and prompts for a description of the institution involved. This version of the IBQ is meant to be administered following some measure of traumatic or undesirable experiences. The instructions refer to these experiences when asking about institutional betrayal. We expect to continue to develop this instrument. Please check back here for the latest information.

The Institutional Betrayal and Support Questionnaire or IBSQ also integrates questions about institutional support that may occur related to a traumatic experience.  Currently, the IBSQ is being used to measure institutional betrayal and support related to campus sexual assault and adds eight items such as "[Did the institution play a role by] ... Meeting your needs for support and accommodations?" that allow supportive behaviors that may occur in addition to betrayal.

The Instituional Betrayal Questionnaire - Health or IBQ-H was created based on the IBQ to capture institutional betrayal in healthcare institutions such as hospitals, clinics, and insurance companies.  This version (IBQ-Healthcare or IBQ-H) directs respondents to consider medical and healthcare institutions where negative medical experiences (e.g., prescription errors, surgical complications) occurred and asks about institutional betrayal related to those experiences. More about Carly Smith's doctoral dissertation, the first project using the IBQ-H, can be found here.

Preliminary findings using the IBQ.1

Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). Dangerous Safe Havens: Institutional Betrayal Exacerbates Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 119-124.

Preliminary findings using the IBQ.2

Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (in prep). The body knows: Institutional Betrayal, Health, and Dissociation.

(For summary of preliminary findings see Smith talk at: http://dynamic.uoregon.edu/jjf/wpa2014/index.html )

Copyright, Use, and Permission Statement

Note: The following materials were used in the research cited above. They are all copyright, 2009-2014, Carly P. Smith and Jennifer J. Freyd. They are available for attributed public use under a Creative Commons CC-BY-ND 3.0 license. We would appreciate being notified of your planned use that is consistent with the Creative Commons license.  If you wish to copy, distribute, or otherwise re-use these materials or to modify them, please first contact Carly P. Smith for reprint permission.

Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire Version 1 (IBQ.1)

This questionnaire will ask you to think about larger institutions to which you belong or have belonged, which may or may not call to mind specific individuals.  This may include large systems such as a university, the military, the Greek System (i.e., the Fraternity/Sorority System as a whole), or an organized religion.  Additionally, this can refer to parts of these systems such as a campus dormitory, a military unit, a specific fraternity or sorority, or a particular church.  

In thinking about the events you described experiencing in the previous section, did an institution play a role by (please check all that apply)...

1. Not taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?

2. Creating an environment in which this type of experience/s seemed common or like  no big deal?

3. Creating an environment in which this experience seemed more likely to occur?

4. Making it difficult to report the experience/s?

5. Responding inadequately to the experience/s, if reported?

6. Covering up the experience/s?

7. Punishing you in some way for this experience (e.g., loss of privileges or status)?

8. Prior to this experience, was this an institution or organization you strongly identified with or felt a part of?

9. Are you still part of this institution or organization?
N/A          Yes               No

10. Please indicate the type of institution involved (check one or more):
University/College
Dormitory/Housing
Greek System
Sorority
Fraternity
Church
Military
Team/Sports Club
Other, Please describe:

11. Did you tell anyone about your experience/s?
N/A      Yes       No

12. If you told anyone about your experience/s, who did you tell?

13. If you told anyone about your experience/s, how did they react?

14. Please briefly described what occurred:

Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire Version 2 (IBQ.2)

This section will ask you to think about larger institutions to which you belong or have belonged, which may or may not call to mind specific individuals.  This may include large systems such as a university, the military, the Greek System (i.e., the Fraternity/Sorority System as a whole), or organized religion.  Additionally, this can refer to parts of these systems such as a campus dormitory, a military unit, a specific fraternity or sorority, or a particular church.  

In thinking about the events described in the previous section, did an institution play a role by (check all that apply)...

1. Not taking proactive steps to prevent this type of experience?
2. Creating an environment in which this type of experience seemed common or normal?
3. Creating an environment in which this experience seemed more likely to occur?
4. Making it difficult to report the experience?
5. Responding inadequately to the experience, if reported?
6. Mishandling your case, if disciplinary action was requested?
7. Covering up the experience?
8. Denying your experience in some way?
9. Punishing you in some way for reporting the experience (e.g., loss of privileges or status)?
10. Suggesting your experience might affect the reputation of the institution?
11. Creating an environment where you no longer felt like a valued member of the institution?
12. Creating an environment where continued membership was difficult for you?

Prior to this experience, was this an institution or organization you identified with or felt a part of?
1- Not at all 2-Very little  3-A good deal  4-Very much

Are you still a part of this institution?
Yes/No

Please briefly identify the institution involved (e.g., church, school):

 

Institutional Betrayal and Support Questionnaire Version 1 (IBSQ.1), Smith and Freyd 2015 (and included in the ARC3 survey)

A. Responses to Survivors
*Instructions: In thinking about the events related to sexual misconduct described in the previous sections, did the [INSTITUTION] play a role by...


1. Actively supporting you [the person]* with either formal or informal resources (e.g., counseling, academic services, meetings or phone calls)?

Yes

No

N/A

2. Apologizing for what happened to you?

Yes

No

N/A

3. Believing your report?

Yes

No

N/A

4. Allowing you to have a say in how your report was handled?

Yes

No

N/A

5. Ensuring you were treated as an important member of the institution?

Yes

No

N/A

6. Meeting your needs for support and accommodations

Yes

No

N/A

7. Create an environment where this type of experience was safe to discuss?

Yes

No

N/A

8. Create an environment where this type of experience was recognized as a problem?

Yes

No

N/A

9. Not doing enough to prevent this type of experience/s?  

Yes

No

N/A

10. Creating an environment in which this type of experience/s seemed common or normal?     

Yes

No

N/A

11. Creating an environment in which this experience seemed more likely to occur?

Yes

No

N/A

12. Making it difficult to report the experience/s?

Yes

No

N/A

13. Responding inadequately to the experience/s, if reported?

Yes

No

N/A

14. Mishandling your case, if disciplinary action was requested?

Yes

No

N/A

15. Covering up the experience/s?

Yes

No

N/A

16. Denying your experience/s in some way?

Yes

No

N/A

17. Punishing you in some way for reporting the experience/s (e.g., loss of privileges or status)?

Yes

No

N/A

18. Suggesting your experience/s might affect the reputation of the institution?

Yes

No

N/A

19. Creating an environment where you no longer felt like a valued member of the institution?

Yes

No

N/A

20. Creating an environment where staying at [INSTITUTION] was difficult for you?

Yes

No

N/A

21. Responding differently to your experience/s based on your sexual orientation?

Yes

No

N/A

22. Creating an environment in which you felt discriminated against based on your sexual orientation?

Yes

No

N/A

23. Expressing a biased or negative attitude toward you and/or your experience/s based on your sexual orientation?

Yes

No

N/A

24. Responding differently to your experience/s based on your race?

Yes

No

N/A

25. Creating an environment in which you felt discriminated against based on your race?

Yes

No

N/A

26. Expressing a biased or negative attitude toward you and/or your experience/s based on your race?

Yes

No

N/A

* NOTE: This survey can be used as a measure of institutional climate as well, asking respondents to consider whether their institutions would do each of the following.

 

Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire -- Health (IBQ-H), Smith and Freyd 2015 (and used in Smith dissertation)

This section will ask you to think about healthcare institutions that you have interacted with in the United States. This may or may not call to mind specific individuals. This may include large systems such as the United States healthcare system as a whole, hospitals, or insurance companies. It may also call to mind smaller parts of these systems such as a hospital department, a health clinic, or a doctor's office staff. 

As you progress though this section, you may think about different institutions at different points. We are interested in whether you have ever had any of the following experiences at any time.

In thinking about the experiences seeking healthcare you described in the previous section, did a healthcare institution play a role by (check all that apply)...

  1. Not taking proactive steps to prevent unpleasant healthcare experiences (e.g., by explaining procedures, side effects, etc.)?
  2. Creating an environment in which unpleasant healthcare experiences seemed common or normal (e.g., minimizing your concerns, delivering serious news in a casual way)
  3. Creating an environment in which a negative experience seemed more likely to occur (e.g., an apparent lack of communication between providers, lack of clear or consistent policies)?
  4. Making it difficult to report a negative experience or share concerns (e.g., difficultly contacting provider, not being given a chance to ask questions, no clear avenue for sharing dissatisfaction)?
  5. Responding inadequately to your concerns or reports of a negative experience, if shared (e.g., you were given incorrect or inadequate information or advice that was not feasible for you to follow)?
  6. Mishandling your protected personal information (e.g., unauthorized release of medical history, losing records, not keeping track of complaints or concerns)?
  7. Covering up adverse medical events (e.g., not immediately informing you of a mistake in treatment, withholding information about healthcare coverage, or not disclosing prior records of know risks for a treatment)?
  8. Denying your experience in some way (e.g., your concerns were treated as invalid, your prior history was dismissed as unimportant)?
  9. Punishing you in some way for reporting a negative healthcare experience (e.g., you were labeled as problematic or responsible for a lack of recovery or timely healthcare delivery)?
  10. Suggesting your experience might affect the reputation of the institution (e.g., your experience was contrasted with the “typical” one, you were discouraged from seeking a second opinion or sharing your experiences with others)?
  11. Creating an environment where you no longer felt like a valued member of the institution (e.g., you had to repeatedly remind providers of your identity or treatment history, your primary identity was your medical condition rather than a person, you were discriminated against due to a personal characteristic)?
  12. Creating an environment where continuing to seek care was difficult for you (e.g., your appointments were repeatedly changed or cancelled at short notice, seeking healthcare was financially or personally difficult and not supported by the institution)?


Prior to this experience, was this an institution or organization you trusted?

Have you sought healthcare from this institution since having any of these experiences?
Yes/No

Please briefly identify the institution involved (e.g., insurance company, doctor’s office, private hospital, VA system, etc. -- you do not need to provide a specific name):

Also see: