Betrayal Trauma Articles, Chapters, & Commentaries*

*Articles and commentaries on this site are all authored or co-authored by Jennifer J. Freyd. These articles are all copyright (c), generally by their respective publishers, and are provided here for reference and individual scholarly access only. For all commercial use, please contact the copyright holder (generally the publisher).

These articles are mostly about betrayal trauma and related issues. For representational momentum and shareability articles see http://pages.uoregon.edu/dynamic/jjf/repmo.html . For a more complete publication record see J. Freyd's Abbreviated Vita. For Books see: JJF Memory & Trauma Research Page.

Year: 1994 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 and in press

Citation Additional information

Freyd, Jennifer J. (1994). Betrayal trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse. Ethics & Behavior 4 (4) 307-329.

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 1.17MB). PDF full text.
Abstract: Describes psychogenic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse based on betrayal trauma theory. Why amnesia is a response to childhood abuse, the cognitive architecture of these dissociations, why and how traumatic amnesia occurs, and the implications of these findings are discussed. Victims may need to remain unaware of the trauma not to reduce suffering but rather to promote survival. Amnesia enables the child to maintain an attachment with a figure vital to survival, development, and thriving. Analysis of evolutionary pressures, mental modules, social cognition, and developmental needs suggests that the degree to which the most fundamental human ethics are violated can influence the nature, form, and processes of trauma and responses to trauma.

Freyd, Jennifer J., and David H. Gleaves (1996). "Remembering" Words Not Presented in Lists: Relevance to the Current Recovered/False Memory Controversy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22 (3), 811-813.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: H. L. Roediger and K. B. McDermott (1995) found that when participants studied a list of words with a common, but not presented associate participants frequently falsely reported remembering the never presented associated word as part of the list. Roediger and McDermott suggest that this finding is generalizable to the current controversy surrounding contested memories of child abuse. The present authors urge caution in making such a generalization, arguing that there are critical differences between Roediger and McDermott's findings and contested memories of abuse.

Freyd, J.J. (1996). The science of memory: Apply with caution. Traumatic StressPoints, 10 (4), 1, 8.

Full text: available on this site. HTML full text.

Freyd, J. J. (1997). Violations of power, adaptive blindness, and betrayal trauma theory. Feminism and Psychology. 7, 22-32.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Opening Section: Interpersonal Power. Who has it? Who doesn't have it? What happens when power is used to abuse? These are central questions for feminist psychology. Implicit in these considerations of power are questions of interpersonal trust and betrayal: who trusts whom, and why is trust required? What happens when trust is betrayed? How does interpersonal power influence interpersonal trust? How does a person respond when a more powerful person betrays? Interpersonal power, interpersonal trust, and betrayal are also fundamental components of betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1994; 1996). Betrayal trauma theory addresses the motivations for, and mechanisms resulting in, amnesia for childhood abuse. In this article I will briefly summarize some aspects of betrayal trauma theory (focusing mostly on the motivations, not the mechanisms). I will then discuss some issues relevant to feminist psychology.
Ordering:
Individual issues of Feminism and Psychology may be ordered from Sage Publications, info@sagepub.com or 805-499-0721.

DePrince, A.P. and Freyd, J.J. (1997). So What is the Dispute About? The Judges' Journal: A Quarterly of the Judicial Division of the American Bar Association. 36(3), 70-72.

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 2.9MB). PDF full text.

Gleaves, D. H. & Freyd, J.J. (1997). Questioning additional claims about the "false memory syndrome" epidemic. [commentary] American Psychologist, 52 993-994.

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 2.9MB). PDF full text.
Summary: In this comment on the article by K. S. Pope (see record 83-37387), the authors agree about the need to evaluate the empirical evidence regarding the alleged epidemic of false memories and accusations of abuse. The authors also express an additional concern that the data presented to support claims of false memory syndrome proponents are frequently extreme misapplications of published research. Examples of such misrepresentations are presented and discussed.

DePrince, A.P. and Freyd, J.J. (1998). Trauma, Science, and Society [Book review] Contemporary Psychology, 43, 398-399.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .

Freyd, J. J. (1998). Science in the Memory Debate. Ethics & Behavior, 8 (2), 101-113.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract: Experimental Psychology has much to offer the current debate about memories of childhood abuse. However, laboratory scientists, with their enormous cognitive authority to define reality for the rest of the population, must be especially conservative when arguing that laboratory results on memory generalize to contested memories of abuse. Researchers must make an effort to untangle the appropriate from inappropriate application of research results to this debate. A crucial untangling strategy for future research on general phenomena involves taking care to pose questions separately. When the research is disseminated, its relevance and its limitations must be carefully communicated. Finally, scientists must attend to their power to define reality for others.
Ordering: This article appeared in a Special Issue of Ethics & Behavior. Other contributors include Ross Cheit, Anna Salter, David Calof, Jennifer Hoult, Laura Brown (for a review and summary of the special issue see Chapman's review). The special issue (Volume 8, Number 2) of Ethics & Behavior can be ordered from LEA by calling 1-800-9BOOKS9, fax to 201/236-0072, or e-mail to orders@leahq.mhs.compuserve.com.

Freyd, J. J., S. R. Martorello, J. S. Alvarado, A. E. Hayes, & J. C. Christman (1998). Cognitive environments and dissociative tendencies: Performance on the Standard Stroop task for high versus low dissociators. Applied Cognitve Psychology, 12, S91-S103.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract:
Dissociative experiences are characterized by a disruption in integration of consciousness, attention, and/or memory. Most individuals have some dissociative experiences (such as "highway hypnosis"), but some individuals have remarkably frequent and intense dissociative experiences (as in the case of Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder)). We hypothesized that individual differences in dissociative experiences may have an attentional basis an/or effect on attentional mechanisms. We report on a study in which we selected high and low dissociators, as measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (Bernstein and Putnam, 1986) and we evaluated each group's performance on a basic Stroop interference task with incongruent colour terms and control stimuli. We found that the high dissociators showed greater Stroop interference than did the low dissociators. We discuss our current theoretical understanding of this relationship in which we speculate that a history of trauma is an important causal factor in both high levels of dissociative experiences and changes in basic attentional strategies and mechanisms.
Ordering:
Single issues of the journal of Applied Cognitve Psychology can be ordered from John Wiley Publishers http://www.wiley.com/

Freyd, J.J. (1999). Blind to Betrayal: New Perspectives on Memory for Trauma. The Harvard Mental Health Letter, 15 (12) 4-6.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Ordering: http://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/backmental.html

Veldhuis, C. B., & Freyd, J. J. (1999). Groomed for silence, groomed for betrayal. In M. Rivera (Ed.), Fragment by Fragment: Feminist Perspectives on Memory and Child Sexual Abuse (pp. 253-282). Charlottetown, PEI Canada: Gynergy Books.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Overview
(paragraph from page 254): In this article, we seek to explore the relationships between language and memory in the context of childhood abuse. We will consider this language-memory relationship from various perspectives, including the role of societal responses to disclosures and, especially, the role of perpetrator communication on the victim's subsequent memory and processing of the event. We theorize that, in addition to victim motivations related to coping with betrayal trauma (that is, betrayal by someone close to them), certain patterns of communication within the perpetrator-victim relationship will have predictable effects on victim awareness and memory of the abuse -- and perhaps that the perpetrator can exploit these very dynamics to suppress the child's knowledge of the abuse.
Ordering: books@gynergy.com; phone 800-565-9523; fax 800-221-9985

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (1999). Review of Truth in Memory (Lynn & McConkey, Eds.) American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 41, 281-283.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (1999). Dissociative tendencies, attention, and memory. Psychological Science, 10, 449-452.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: Two groups of college-students were selected based on their scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). The high-DES group (score > 20; M = 29.6; n = 54) and low-DES group (score < 10; M = 5.1; n = 54) both completed the standard and a new dual-task version of the Stroop ink-naming task with xs (baseline condition) and color, neutral, and emotionally charged words. Free recall results indicate that high-DES participants remembered fewer emotionally charged words than low-DES participants. We found a cross-over interaction for Stroop Interference: High DES participants showed more interference (conflicting color &endash; baseline latency for ink naming) in a selective-attention Stroop task and less interference in the dual-task Stroop task. The interaction between attentional context and dissociation for Stroop interference and the free recall results are consistent with a cognitive-environments view of dissociative tendencies. In this view, dissociative tendencies, which have been otherwise speculated to be largely deleterious, can be advantageous in certain contexts.

Freyd, J. J. & Quina, K. (2000). Feminist ethics in the practice of science: The contested memory controversy as an example. In M. Brabeck (Ed) Practicing Feminist Ethics in Psychology (pp. 101-124). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract:
(from the chapter) The authors take the position that current scientific work may shed significant insight on any given issue, even such a difficult-to-research area as delayed recall of childhood abuse. The authors discuss some of the ways that science has been misapplied and principles of good science have been violated, using examples from the debate over delayed recall of childhood abuse. The authors demonstrate how a feminist ethical perspective can inform this debate, regardless of the position one assumes with respect to the issue. The authors also suggest some guidelines that may be useful in minimizing further misapplications of science through careful applications of feminist ethical principles. The authors focus on the ethical issues to which feminist scientists could and should be paying attention. Although the authors focus more on the misuse of science to support the false memory position, the popular press and much of academia have embraced or promoted the position that science supports premises of false memory proponents.
Ordering
: American Psychological Association.

Becker, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2000). Book review of Pillemer's Momentus Events. biography: an international quarterly, 23, 372-374.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .

Ordering: University of Hawaii Press, 808-956-88533

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2001). The meeting of trauma & cognitive science: Facing challenges and creating opportunities at the crossroads, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 4 (2), 1-8. [Also published as: Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P. (Eds) (2001). Trauma and Cognitive Science: A Meeting of Minds, Science, and Human Experience. Haworth Press.]

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract:
This article argues for the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to traumatic stress studies. The intersection of cognitive science and trauma offers both challenge and potential. The current article considers these challenges and opportunities in light of lessons learned at the 1998 Meeting on Trauma and Cognitive Science, held at the University of Oregon. The article will discuss the creation of this volume from the 1998 Meeting

Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P. (2001). Perspectives on memory for trauma and cognitive processes associated with dissociative tendencies. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 4 (2), 137-163. [Also published as: Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P. (Eds) (2001). Trauma and Cognitive Science: A Meeting of Minds, Science, and Human Experience. Haworth Press.]

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract:
Cognitive science approaches can inform research in traumatic stress studies by articulating separate scientific issues that may be relevant to understanding alterations in memory and awareness for trauma. This article will first address general issues about disrupted memory and "knowledge isolation" for trauma, as well as introduce specific aspects of "betrayal trauma theory" that inform our understanding of memory impairment. According to betrayal trauma theory, a potent motivation for knowledge isolation (including amnesia, dissociation, and unawareness) in the face of trauma is to preserve apparently necessary human relationships in which betrayal occurs. Results from 3 recent laboratory investigations of cognitive processes associated with dissociative tendencies are summarized. These laboratory investigations suggest that the attentional capacities of high dissocators are impaired under conditions of selective attention, but not divided attention. The findings suggest that high dissociators use divided attention and multi-tasking as a way to control the flow of information. Such a view is consistent with betrayal trauma theory. Though in its infancy, this research draws on cognitive science and observations of traumatic response and offers much promise.

Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P. (2001). Finding a secret garden in trauma research, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 4 (2), 305-309.. [Also published as: Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P. (Eds) (2001). Trauma and Cognitive Science: A Meeting of Minds, Science, and Human Experience. Haworth Press.]

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .
Abstract: This article briefly summarizes the diversity in perspectives and methodologies captured in the current volume. The authors discuss diversity in the context of the 1998 Meeting on Trauma and Cognitive Science, and the future of traumatic stress studies. In addition, future directions for research and collaborative approaches are discussed.

Becker, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2001). Legal remedies for sexual abuse survivors (book review of Sexual Abuse Litigation: A Practical Resource for Attorneys, Clinicians, and Advocates). Psychology of Women's Quarterly, 25, 258 - 259.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text .

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2001). Memory and dissociative tendencies: The roles of attentional context and word meaning in a directed forgetting task. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 2(2), 67-82.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: Examined cognitive correlates of dissociative tendencies and considered the results in the context of theory-building in the dissociation and traumatic stress literature. The current study is a replication and extension of research by R. J. McNally et al (1998). Ss were undergraduate students selected based on their performance on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES): 28 Ss (mean age 19 yrs) were high-scorers (score>=20) and 28 Ss (mean age 21 yrs) were low-scorers (score<=10). Ss performed a computerized directed forgetting task using trauma, neutral, and positive words that they were directed to either remember or forget. Words were randomly assigned to 3 blocks, each of which was paired with 1 of 3 attention conditions: selective attention; divided attention with key press; and divided attention with voice response. Each block was viewed 3 times by each S and presented in a random order. After viewing all word blocks, Ss performed free recall and recognition tests. Results show differences between high- and low- DES scorers during the divided attention with key press condition. Consistent with prior research, when divided attention was required, high-scoring DES Ss recalled fewer trauma and more neutral words than did low-scoring DES Ss, who showed the opposite pattern

Stoler, L., Quina, K., DePrince, A.P &. Freyd, J. J. (2001). Recovered memories. In J. Worrell (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Women and Gender, Volume Two. (pp 905-917) San Diego, California and London: Academic Press.

Full text: available on this site (2.4 MB). PDF full text.

Freyd, J.J., DePrince, A.P., & Zurbriggen, E.L. (2001). Self-reported memory for abuse depends upon victim-perpetrator relationship. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 2(3), 5-17.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: This article presents preliminary results from the Betrayal Trauma Inventory (BTI), which tests predictions from betrayal trauma theory (J. J. Freyd, 1994, 1996, in press) about the relationship between amnesia and betrayal by a caregiver. For this study, 202 undergraduate students participated in the survey. The BTI assesses trauma history using behaviorally defined events in the domains of sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse, as well as other lifetime traumatic events. When participants endorse an abuse experience, follow-up questions assess a variety of factors including memory impairment and perpetrator relationship. Preliminary results support the prediction that abuse perpetrated by a caregiver is related to less persistent memories of abuse. This relationship is significant for sexual and physical abuse. Regression analyses revealed that age was not a significant predictor of memory impairment and that duration of abuse could not account for the findings.

Freyd, J.J. (2001). Memory and Dimensions of Trauma: Terror May be 'All-Too-Well Remembered' and Betrayal Buried. In J.R. Conte (Ed.) Critical Issues in Child Sexual Abuse: Historical, Legal, and Psychological Perspectives (pp. 139-173). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.

Freyd, J.J. (2002). In the wake of terrorist attack hatred may mask fear. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2, 5-8. Also published as: Misplaced anger may mask fear and sadness. [Op-Ed article] Register Guard, September 24, 2001, p. 9A.].

Full text: journal article version available on this site. PDF full text.
Expanded version available on this site HTML full text
Abstract: Reactions of anger, rage, and hatred in the wake of September 11 terrorist attack are considered in light of the psychology of emotion and stress. Acknowledging underlying grief and fear through self-reflection, writing, and social communication is likely to reduce unchecked anger, rage, and hatred. Hate crimes may also have some psychological bases in responses to stress called "flight-or-fight." When flight is not an option, identifying and hating an enemy may have had evolutionary value for survival. This response creates harm in the current situation. An alternative cooperative response to stress, called "tend-and-befriend" by researchers, will be more helpful.

Sivers, H., Schooler, J. , Freyd, J. J. (2002). Recovered memories. In V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, Volume 4. (pp 169-184). San Diego, California and London: Academic Press.

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 1.6MB). PDF full text

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2002). The harm of trauma: Pathological fear, shattered assumptions, or betrayal? In J. Kauffman (Ed.) Loss of the Assumptive World: a theory of traumatic loss. (pp 71-82). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2002). The intersection of gender and betrayal in trauma. In R. Kimerling, P.C. Ouimette, & J. Wolfe (Eds.) Gender and PTSD. (pp 98-113). New York: Guilford Press.

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 2 MB). PDF full text.
(from the chapter) Many traumatic events involve some degree of social betrayal. In cases of interpersonal violence, betrayal may take the form of caregivers' or trusted partners' perpetration of violence. Some forms of trauma are less likely to involve social betrayal, such as natural disasters. This chapter explores gender differences in traumas that involve betrayal, using this framework to make predictions about gender and memory impairment in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on the current literature, we have evidence that females experience more betrayal traumas than males, when betrayal is defined as "abuse by someone on whom the victim is dependent." We do have to be cautious in interpreting this finding. Although we have evidence of differences in men's and women's reports of trauma, we cannot determine which of these differences are explained by socialization as opposed to experience with traumatic events; that is, are women simply more willing to report abuse by caregivers than men? We do not know whether the gender differences for reported betrayal versus fear reflect gender narratives that men and women learn as they are sex-role socialized, or the experience of different traumatic events; most likely they reflect both.

Zurbriggen, E.L., Pearce, G.E. & Freyd, J.J. (2003). Evaluating the impact of betrayal for children exposed in photographs. Children & Society, 17, 305-320.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Elements of betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, [1996]) are used to evaluate potential negative and positive consequences for children who serve as artistic models, particularly those who model for their artist parents. Several dimensions are considered in evaluating the likelihood of harm: nudity, motives of the artist, consent, external vulnerability, and objectification. Recommendations to artists include appointing an advocate for the child, discussing photographic sessions and allowing observers, and going beyond standard release procedures. Similarities to the domains of creative writing and research psychology are considered.

Freyd, J. J. (2003). Memory for abuse: What can we learn from a prosecution sample? Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 12(2) , 97-103.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Link to commentaries on Freyd (2003)

Zurbriggen, E.L. & Freyd, J.J. (2004). The link between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behavior: The role of dissociative tendencies, information-processing effects, and consensual sex decision mechanisms. In L.J. Koenig, L.S. Doll, A. O'Leary, & W. Pequegnat (Eds.) From Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Sexual Risk: Trauma, Revictimization, and Intervention. (pp135-158) Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
(from the chapter) Previous research has demonstrated a connection between child sexual abuse victimization and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors as an adult. In this chapter, the authors describe a set of cognitive mechanisms that may be important mediators of the relationship between abuse experiences and sexually risky behavior. Their shared focus is on cognitive science approaches to understanding the psychology of sexual abuse and aggression. Their theorizing takes an information-processing perspective and is concerned with cognitive structures, processes, and mechanisms. The chapter first describes some of the authors' ongoing work investigating cognitive mechanisms in the area of trauma, dissociation, and memory, and then speculates about the implication for sexually risk behavior.

Becker-Blease, K.A., Deater-Deckard, K., Eiley, T, Freyd, J.J.,. Stevenson, J., & Plomin, R. (2004). A genetic analysis of individual differences in dissociative behaviors in childhood and adolescence. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 522-532.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: Dissociation - a pattern of general disruption in memory and consciousness - has been found to be an important cognitive component of children's and adults' coping with severe trauma. Dissociative experiences include amnesia, identity disturbance, age regression, difficulty with concentration, and trance states. Stable individual differences in dissociative behaviors may represent a dissociative tendency trait that varies in the population independent of the influence of trauma. In the current study, we examined genetic and environmental sources of variance in some of these behaviors by comparing 86 pairs of adoptive siblings and 102 pairs of full siblings from the Colorado Adoption Project (parents' and teachers' ratings), and 218 pairs of identical and 173 pairs of same-sex fraternal twins from the British Register for Child Twins (parents' ratings). The study used a dissociation scale comprised of six CBCL items. Developmentally, there was no change in mean dissociation scores across middle childhood and adolescence, and individual differences were moderately stable. Both parents' and teachers' ratings showed moderate to substantial amounts of genetic and nonshared environmental variance and negligible shared environmental variance, and most of the parent-teacher agreement in their ratings was accounted for by overlapping genetic variance.

Freyd, J.J. (2004). Film undermines efforts to fight child abuse. The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), [Op-Ed] February 29, 2004, p B3.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Becker-Blease, K.A. & Freyd, J.J., & Pears, K.C. (2004). Preschoolers' memory for threatening information depends on trauma history and attentional context: Implications for the development of dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(1), 113-131.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Although the roots of dissociative ability are thought to lie in early childhood, little is understood about how or why children dissociate or how dissociative abilities develop over time. Previous cognitive studies of adults suggest that some dissociative adults use divided attention to keep threatening information out of awareness (DePrince & Freyd, 1999, 2001). This study utilized a divided attention memory task similar to those used by DePrince and Freyd (DePrince & Freyd, 1999), but modified for four and five-year-olds. Contrary to prediction, children with relatively high dissociation scores did not differ in their memory for charged and neutral pictures under divided attention when compared to children with low dissociation scores. Consistent with predictions, under divided attention, abused children remembered fewer charged pictures relative to non-abused children. The same pattern was found when comparing abused children with high dissociation scores to non-abused children with low dissociation scores. These results are consistent with the idea that some traumatized people use divided attention to keep threatening information out of awareness. Results are discussed in terms of a developmental theory of dissociation.

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2004). Forgetting trauma stimuli. Psychological Science, 15, 488-492.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Previous work reported in this journal suggested that the cognitive capacities of high dissociators are impaired under conditions of focused (selective) attention, but not under conditions of divided attention, compared with the cognitive capacities of low dissociators. Using a directed-forgetting paradigm, the current study demonstrated that under divided-attention demands, high dissociators have impaired memory for words associated with trauma (e.g., incest) but not for neutral words, as compared with low dissociators. In addition, high dissociators reported significantly more trauma history and significantly more betrayal trauma (abuse by a caregiver) than low dissociators. These results are consistent with the proposal that dissociation may aid individuals with histories of betrayal traumas to keep threatening information out of awareness.

Birrell, P.J., & Freyd, J.J. (2004). Speaking for ourselves: unmasking the hidden agenda of the false memory controversy. [book review] Ethics & Behavior, 14, 89-92.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

DePrince, A.P., Allard, C.B., Oh, H., & Freyd, J.J. (2004). What's in a name for memory errors? Implications and ethical issues arising from the use of the label "false memory" for errors in memory for details. Ethics & Behavior, 14, 201-233.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: The term "false memories" has been used to refer to suggestibility experiments in which whole events are apparently confabulated and in media accounts of contested memories of childhood abuse. Since 1992 psychologists have increasingly used the term "false memory" when discussing memory errors for details, such as specific words within word lists. Use of the term to refer to errors in details is a shift in language away from other terms used historically (e.g., "memory intrusions"). We empirically examine this shift in language and discuss implications of the new use of the term "false memories." Use of the term presents serious ethical challenges to the data-interpretation process by encouraging over-generalization and misapplication of research findings on word memory to social issues.

Goldsmith, R.E., Barlow, M.R., & Freyd, J.J. (2004). Knowing and not knowing about trauma: Implications for therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41, 448-463.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Levels of awareness for trauma and their consequences for research, treatment, and prevention within professional psychology and society are considered. When people must endure chronically traumatic environments, it may be adaptive to isolate from awareness information that would produce cognitive dissonance and threaten necessary relationships. Unawareness may also facilitate functioning in environments that invalidate the prevalence and impact of trauma. In addition, characteristics of the posttraumatic environment can promote or impede individuals' awareness of trauma and their psychological functioning. Though often initially adaptive, unawareness for trauma is linked to intergenerational transmission of trauma and its effects and may preclude public and professional attention to trauma treatment and prevention. Understanding the processes through which individuals become unaware or aware of traumatic experience is therefore essential to conducting effective psychotherapy with trauma survivors.

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2004). Costs and benefits of being asked about trauma history. Journal of Trauma Practice, 4(3), 23-35.

Note:
Cover Date: 2004
Publication Date: 2006
Copyright Date: 2005

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: How do participants feel about trauma history questions in research? We asked 528 undergraduate and community participants to answer three questions about their experience of completing the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS; Goldberg &Freyd, 2004), a self-report trauma measure. The questions tapped (1) participants' experience of whether the trauma history questions were more or less distressing than things encountered in day-to-day life, (2) how important participants believe it is for psychologists to ask about these events, and (3) how good of an idea, according to participants, it is to include such a measure in psychology research. Participants indicated that, on average, questions about trauma are neutral compared to day-to-day experiences. Further, participants reported that research asking about stressful life events is more than “somewhat important,” and that including such measures is more than “somewhat good.” These results do not support the assumption that trauma history questions are harmful to participants and suggest that participants, on average, appreciate the inclusion of trauma questions in psychological research.

Becker-Blease, K.A., & Freyd, J.J. (2005). Beyond PTSD: An evolving relationship between trauma theory and family violence research. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 403-411.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: During the past 20 years, we have learned how similarly harmful are experiences of terror, violence, and abuse, whether they occur on the combat field or at home. The field of family violence has gained much from the field of traumatic stress, and collaborations between these two previously separate fields have yielded important new answers, as well as new research questions. The field of traumatic stress is poised to integrate, more fully than in the past, a variety of aspects of trauma such as social betrayal, as well as outcomes of trauma such as depression, criminality, and physiological harm that go beyond posttraumatic stress. The field of family violence has much to offer in this process. We look forward to improved research designs that will further our knowledge of how trauma affects aspects of people’s lives, including productivity, relationships, cognition, and emotions, in negative and positive ways.

Freyd, J.J., Putnam, F.W., Lyon, T.D., Becker-Blease, K. A., Cheit, R.E., Siegel, N.B., & Pezdek, K. (2005). The science of child sexual abuse. Science, 308, 501.

Freyd, J.J., Putnam, F.W., Lyon, T.D., Becker-Blease, K. A., Cheit, R.E., Siegel, N.B., & Pezdek, K. (2005). The problem of child sex abuse [Response to letters]. Science, 309, 1183-1185.

Full text: available on this site HTML full text
Pre-publication version: available on this site.
Summary:
Child sexual abuse (CSA) involving sexual contact between an adult and a child has been reported by approximately 20% of women and 5 to 10% of men worldwide. A history of CSA leads to serious mental and physical health problems, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. Scientific study of CSA is currently underfunded, obscured by contentious forensic controversy, and fragmented by discipline. From public health, economic, ethical, and scientific perspectives, the authors of this Policy Forum recommend interdisciplinary consensus panels and increased intellectual investment in CSA research, prevention, intervention, and education. Full text of abstract from Science Magazine

Response: In the 19 August 2005 issue of Science 4 letters and authors' response.

Cheit, R.E. & Freyd, J.J. (2005). Let's have an honest fight against child sex abuse. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 21(6), 8.

Reprinted as Cheit, R.E. & Freyd, J.J. (2006). "Funding for child abuse prevention programs must be increased", pp 124-127, in L. Almond (Ed.) Child Abuse, Greenhaven Press.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Note: Commentary related to the Science policy forum (reference above).

Goldsmith, R. & Freyd, J.J. (2005). Awareness for emotional abuse. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5(1), 95-123.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: This study investigates links between emotional abuse and emotional awareness. Predictions included a positive correlation between emotional abuse and alexithymia, and that few individuals reporting emotional abuse would self-label as having been abused. Eighty participants completed anonymous, self-report surveys with symptom and trauma inventories. Participants were asked if they were physically, sexually, or emotionally abused (using the word “abused”); these questions preceded symptom and maltreatment measures. Emotional abuse and neglect were significantly positively correlated with difficulty identifying feelings, even after controlling for participants' depression, anxiety, dissociation, and lifetime trauma. Few subjects self-identified as having been “abused,” even among those reporting abuse experiences. The results demonstrate a connection between emotional abuse and difficulty identifying emotions. Cognitive, therapeutic, and research implications are discussed.

Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & Allard, C.B. (2005). Betrayal trauma: Relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(3), 83-104.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: In the current study we sought, first, to distinguish associations with health arising from types of trauma as indicated by betrayal trauma theory (Freyd 1996, 2001), and, second, to investigate the impact of disclosing a trauma history in survey form and/or writing essays about betrayal traumas. We recruited 99 community adults reporting at least 12 months of chronic medical illness or pain, 80 of whom completed all four sessions of this 6 month longitudinal intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to write about betrayal traumas or neutral events, and they were randomly assigned to complete an extensive trauma survey or a long personality inventory, producing 4 groups of participants. All 99 participants were assessed at their initial visit for trauma history using the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS) and physical and mental symptoms. The BBTS assesses exposure to both traumas high in betrayal (such as abuse by a close other) and traumas low in betrayal but high in life-threat (such as an automobile accident). Exposure to traumas with high betrayal was significantly correlated with number of physical illness, anxiety, dissociation, and depression symptoms. Amount of exposure to other types of traumas (low betrayal traumas) did not predict symptoms over and above exposure to betrayal trauma. While neither the survey manipulation nor the writing intervention led to main effects on change in symptoms over time, there were interactions between betrayal trauma history and condition such that participants with many betrayal traumas fared better in the control conditions while participants with fewer betrayal traumas had better outcomes if they were placed in the trauma writing and/or survey conditions. We discuss ongoing and future research aimed at evaluating the role of increased structure in writing assignments as beneficial for those with severe histories of betrayal trauma.

Middleton, W. Cromer, L. & Freyd, J.J. (2005). Remembering the past: Anticipating a future, Australasian Psychiatry, 13(3), 223-233.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Objective: To provide an overview of the phenomena of recovered memories and false memories of past traumas and to provide illustrations with clinical vignettes as well as historical observations.
Conclusions: The questions concerning the recovery of memories of trauma do not readily reduce to simple dichotomies. Whatever the terminology applied, be it repression, dissociation or forgetting, humans have a capacity to not consciously know about aspects of their traumas for extended periods of time. The nature of memory is reconstructive. Memory is not a digital recording that provides for a totally accurate replay. Multiple factors including the age at which traumas occurred, the relationships to the person responsible or the nature and extent of the traumas influence what will be accessible to memory. In regard to those patients who describe recovered memories, it is important that clinicians take an individualistic approach and remain open-minded. They should not feel pressure to validate or reject the claim; rather, they should respect and empower patients.

Freyd, J.J. (2006). Long Live the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. [Editorial] Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(1), 1-3.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Becker-Blease, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2006). Research participants telling the truth about their lives: the ethics of asking and not asking about abuse. American Psychologist, 6(3), 218-226.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Most discussions of the ethics of self-report research on abuse and interpersonal violence focus on the risks of asking participants about their experiences. An important element of the cost-benefit analysis--the costs of not asking about child abuse--has largely been ignored. Furthermore, little research has been conducted on the costs and benefits of child abuse research, leaving researchers to make decisions based on individual beliefs about such issues as the prevalence of abuse, the likelihood of disclosure, the effects of child abuse, and the ability of abuse survivors to give informed consent. The authors suggest that these beliefs tend to overemphasize survivors' vulnerability and ignore the costs of avoiding asking about abuse. In fact, these beliefs may reinforce societal avoidance of abuse and ultimately harm abuse survivors.

Also see the five comments about the 2006 paper pulished in American Psychologist 6(4), 2007, pages 325-330and authors' response, pages 330-332.

Goldberg, LR. & Freyd, J.J. (2006). Self-reports of potentially traumatic experiences in an adult community sample: Gender differences and test-retest stabilities of the items in a Brief Betrayal-Trauma Survey. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(3), 39-63.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: A new survey of potentially traumatic events was administered to a large community sample on two occasions, three years apart. In contrast to previous surveys, this one included separate items for events that involve mistreatment by someone close, mistreatment by someone not so close, and non-interpersonal events. For both kinds of interpersonal events, separate items focused on physical, sexual, and emotional types of potential abuse. For each event, respondents indicated the extent of their exposure both prior to and after age 18. This paper reports the prevalence of each of the various kinds of events in subsamples of women (N = 397) and men (N = 292) in both childhood and adulthood, and provides four alternative indices of test-retest stability for each of the event reports. Substantial differences between men and women were found for many of the reported events on both occasions. Specifically, far more women than men reported having experienced traumatic events perpetrated by someone close to them, whereas far more men than women reported having experienced traumatic events perpetrated by someone not close. Some of the implications of these gender interaction effects are discussed.

Cromer, L.D., Freyd, J.J., Binder, A., DePrince, A.P., & Becker-Blease, K.A (2006). What's the risk in asking? Participant reaction to trauma history questions compared with other personal questions. Ethics & Behavior, 16, 347-362.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Does asking about trauma history create participant distress? If so, how does it compare with reactions to other personal questions? Do participants consider trauma questions important compared to other personal questions? Using 2 undergraduate samples (Ns = 240 and 277), the authors compared participants’ reactions to trauma questions with their reactions to other possibly invasive questions through a selfreport survey. Trauma questions caused relatively minimal distress and were perceived as having greater importance and greater cost–benefit ratings compared to other kinds of psychological research in an undergraduate human subjects pool population. These findings suggest that at least some kinds of trauma research appear to pose minimal risk when compared to other minimal risk research topics, and that participants recognize the importance of research about trauma.

Birrell, P.J. & Freyd, J.J. (2006). Betrayal trauma: Relational models of harm and healing. Journal of Trauma Practice, 5(1), 49-63.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: We examine a model that emphasizes the importance of relationships as the context of trauma and healing. First, we present an overview of the effects of betrayal trauma and oppression on psychological functioning. Then, we propose a relational model of healing, using elements of the Stone Center's Relational-Cultural theory. Finally, we discuss healing in the wider context of community and an ethic of compassion and mutuality.

Freyd, J.J. (2006). The Social Psychology of Cognitive Repression [Commentary] Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 518-519.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Erdelyi identifies cognitive and emotional motives for repression, but largely neglects social motivations. Yet social pressure to not know, and implicit needs to isolate awareness in order to protect relationships, are common motives. Social motives may even trump emotional motives; the most painful events are sometimes the most difficult to repress. Cognitive repression may be impacted by social information sharing. [Note: This is a commentary on Erdely's "Unified Theory of Repression", 2006, Behavioral and Brain Sciences.]

Cromer, L.D. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). What influences believing abuse reports? The roles of depicted memory persistence, participant gender, trauma history, and sexism. Psychology of Women's Quarterly, 3, 13-22.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: This vignette study investigated factors that influence believing child sexual abuse disclosures. College student participants (N = 318) in a university human subject pool completed measures about their own trauma history and responded to questions about sexist attitudes. Participants then read vignettes in which an adult disclosed a history of child sexual abuse, rated disclosures for accuracy and believability, and judged the level of abusiveness. Continuous memories were believed more than recovered memories. Men believed abuse reports less than did women, and people who had not experienced trauma were less likely to believe trauma reports. Gender and personal history interacted such that trauma history did not impact women’s judgments but did impact men’s judgments. Men with a trauma history responded similarly to women with or without a trauma history. High sexism predicted lower judgments of an event being abusive. Hostile sexism was negatively correlated with believing abuse disclosures. Results are considered in light of myths about child sexual abuse.

Freyd, J.J., DePrince, A.P., & Gleaves, D. (2007). The State of Betrayal Trauma Theory: Reply to McNally (2007) -- Conceptual Issues and Future Directions. Memory, 15, 295-311.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1994, 1996, 2001) is an approach to conceptualising trauma that points to the importance of social relationships in understanding post-traumatic outcomes, including reduced recall. We argue in this paper that child sexual abuse very often constitutes a severe betrayal trauma and that it is thus ‘‘genuinely traumatic’’. We will also argue that one reasonably common effect of child sexual abuse*particularly the more it involves betrayal trauma*is some degree of forgetting or ‘‘knowledge isolation’’ about the event. This last claim speaks to the heart of betrayal trauma theory that McNally has summarised and critiqued. In this paper we will respond to aspects of McNally’s critique as well as offer our own perspective on the state of betrayal trauma theory.We discuss (1) conceptual issues, (2) critiques of empirical studies, and (3) future directions. Although our interpretation of data diverges from McNally’s in many places, we have all arrived at a surprisingly common endpoint. McNally suggests a child may not think about the abuse for several reasons, such as fears that disclosure may break up the family. In accord with betrayal trauma theory, we note that the failure to think about events will contribute to poorer memory for the event and that these processes are mediated by the unique demands placed on a child exposed to betrayal traumas.

DePrince, A.P., Freyd, J.J., & Malle, B F. (2007). A replication by another name: A response to devilly et al. (2007). Psychological Science, 18, 218-219.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Opening Paragraph: On the basis of a cognitive-environments conceptualization of dissociation (Freyd, Martorello, Alvarado, Hayes, & Christman, 1998; DePrince & Freyd, 1999), DePrince and Freyd (2001, 2004) predicted and found that under divided-attention demands, high dissociators, relative to low dissociators, recalled fewer trauma-related words (e.g., incest) and more neutral words that were to be remembered. Devilly et al. (2007, this issue) present two attempts to replicate this statistical interaction between dissociation and word content under the specified conditions, using the item version of the directed-forgetting task. We are puzzled by their conclusion that these results were a ‘‘lack of replication’’ (p. 212) because both tests of the interaction hypothesis confirmed previous findings with comparable effect sizes, though at higher p values because of a lack of statistical power. The pertinent hypothesis has now garnered substantial support across four studies, with an average effect size d of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32, 1.01). Here we discuss important features of the statistical analyses and hypothesestested in the report by Devilly et al.

Becker Blease, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). The Ethics of Asking about Abuse and the Harm of "Don't Ask Don't Tell" [Comment]. American Psychologist, 62, 330-332.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Note: This comment is a reply to the the five comments pulished in American Psychologist 6(4) (pages 325-330) which are in response to Becker Blease& Freyd (2006).

Opening Paragraph: The authors of each of the preceding comments raised important points that extend our thinking about how to ask participants about abuse in an ethical way. Together, the comments point to the importance of researchers examining our own reasons for asking—or not asking—about abuse and of paying attention to how we respond when we ask.

Veldhuis, C.. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). Primary Prevention of Violence by Adults: Let’s Not Overlook the Impacts of Having Been a Victim of Abuse. [Commentary]. Trauma Psychology, Division 56, American Psychological Association, Newsletter. 2(2), 3-4.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). Trauma-induced dissociation. In M.J. Friedman, T.M. Keane, & P.A. Resick (Eds.), Handbook of PTSD: Science & Practice (pp 135-150). New York: Guilford Press.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Becker-Blease, K.A., & Freyd, J.J. (2007). Dissociation and Memory for Perpetration among Convicted Sex Offenders. Co-published in Brown, L.S. & Quina, K. (Eds.). Trauma and Dissociation in Convicted Offenders: Gender, Science, and Treatment Issues. New York: Haworth Press, and a special issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(2), 69-80.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Sex abusers’ denial of their offenses poses serious problems for their victims, treatment providers, and researchers. Abusers deny their offenses for many reasons, including avoiding responsibility. It is possible that some abusers do not recall their offenses because of intoxication, head injury, or dissociative symptoms that affect their ability to encode or retrieve information. Self-reports of dissociation during childhood victimization, during the perpetration of victimizing acts, and in everyday life were examined in a sample of 17 convicted sex offenders. Half of the participants reported some forgetting of instances when they had sexually abused another person. Forgetting perpetration was related to both dissociation at the time of the offense and dissociation in everyday life. Dissociating while the participants themselves were being physically or sexually abused as children was related to both dissociation during later perpetration and everyday dissociation as an adult. The results support continued research and clinical work to determine the frequency of dissociative symptoms and amnesia among sex abusers.

Klest, B. K. & Freyd, J.J. (2007). Global Ratings of Essays About Trauma: Development of the GREAT Code, and Correlations with Physical and Mental Health Outcomes. Journal of Psychological Trauma, 6(1), 1-20.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated in a variety of contexts that writing about emotional topics can benefit physical health and general well being. Most of this prior research has used the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program (LIWC, Pennebaker & Francis, 1996), but not global essay ratings, to assess what aspects of written essays might be associated with such benefits. Yet scoring rubrics are commonly used in the field of education to score global aspects of student writing. The current study used a sub-sample of essays from a larger research project on trauma, writing and health to develop a global rating rubric for essays about trauma based on rubrics used in education. The resulting rubric was reliably applied to participants’ essays about trauma. Global ratings of essay organization were correlated with improvements in physical and mental health measures at a six-month follow-up. Properties of the rubric and correlations with outcome measures are discussed.

Freyd, J.J. (2007). Archiving Dissociation as a Precaution against Dissociating Dissociation. [Editorial] Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(3), 1-5.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Tang, S.S., Freyd, J.J., & Wang, M. (2007). What Do We Know About Gender in the Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse? Journal of Psychological Trauma, 6(4), 1-26.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is usually concealed by shame and secrecy, and it is often not disclosed for long periods or is not disclosed at all. Lack of disclosure has profound implications for prevention, treatment, and science. Gender is often assumed to be a factor in disclosure rates. Although empirical investigations of the role of gender in the disclosure of CSA have increased in psychological research in the past decade findings are often contradictory, and support for common beliefs such as males being more reluctant to disclose than females may not be as strong as assumed. Therefore, in this article we ask the question, “What do we know about gender in the disclosure of child sexual abuse?” We evaluate the degree of validity of reported rates of CSA by examining the methods used to gather epidemiological evidence for CSA. We also provide a critique of two methods commonly used in the study of CSA: prospective and retrospective studies. We conclude by identifying areas to address in future studies concerning gender and CSA.

2008 Articles:

 

Goldsmith, R., Tang, S.S.S., & Freyd, J.J. (2008). Policy and Practice Implications. In C. Hilarski, J.S. Wodarski, & M. Feit (Eds)  Handbook of Social Work in Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse.  (pp 253-277) New York: Haworth Press/Taylor & Francis Group.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Brown, L.S. & Freyd, J.J. (2008). PTSD criterion A and betrayal trauma: A modest proposal for a new look at what constitutes danger to self.  Trauma Psychology, Division 56, American Psychological Association, Newsletter. 3(1), 11-15.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Hulette, A. C., Freyd, J. J.,  Pears,  K. C., Kim, H. K., Fisher, P.A., & Becker-Blease, K. A.  (2008). Dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms in maltreated preschool children.  Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 1(2), 93-108.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract:
This study examines dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in a sample of maltreated preschool-age children in foster care. Analyses compared Child Behavior Checklist subscale scores for the foster care sample and a community sample, and also examined differences between maltreatment subtypes. Exposure to any type of maltreatment was associated with greater dissociation and posttraumatic symptomatology in this sample. Preschool-age children with documented sexual abuse displayed high levels of posttraumatic symptoms, whereas children with documented physical abuse tended to use dissociation as a primary coping mechanism. The finding that physically abused children had high levels of dissociation confirms previous research with preschoolers.

Freyd, J.J. (2008). Giving psychology away on Wikipedia.  Trauma Psychology, Division 56, American Psychological Association, Newsletter. 3(2), 27.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Freyd, J.J. (2008). A new publisher, a new archive, and an old mystery. [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 9, 439-444

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Becker-Blease, K.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2008). A Preliminary Study of ADHD Symptoms and Correlates: Do Abused Children Differ from Non-Abused Children? Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 17(1), 133-140.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: In this pilot study, differences in inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as demographic factors were investigated in a community sample of 8- through 11-year-olds, approximately half of whom had experienced child abuse or neglect. Parents completed the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Test, the SNAP-IV, the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey – Parent version, and additional questions. Abused children had more severe impulsivity and inattention, but not hyperactivity, symptoms. Abused boys and girls had a similar age of onset of symptoms, whereas nonabused girls had a much later age of onset than nonabused boys. ADHD is a significant problem among maltreated children. These data support large scale studies investigating possible differences in etiology, presentation, and treatment.

Freyd, J.J. (2008). Betrayal trauma.  In G. Reyes, J.D. Elhai, & J.D.Ford (Eds) Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma.  (p. 76). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Freyd, J.J. (2008). What juries don’t know: Dissemination of research on victim response is essential for justice.  Trauma Psychology, Division 56, American Psychological Association, Newsletter. 3(3), 15-18.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Pezdek, K. & Freyd, J.J. (2008). False memory. In C.M. Renzetti & J.L. Edleson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence (Vol 1, pp. 236-237), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

2009 Articles:

 

Barlow, M. R. & Freyd, J. J. (2009). Adaptive dissociation: Information processing and response to betrayal. In P. F. Dell and J. A. O'Neil (Eds.), Dissociation and the Dissociative Disorders: DSM-V and Beyond (pp. 93 - 105). New York: Routledge.

Short version preprinted as:
Barlow, M.R. & Freyd, J.J. (2007) Adaptive Dissociation: Information Processing and Response to betrayal. International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation News, 25 (3), 5-7.

Full text (uncorrected galley version) of 2009 version: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. Betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1996) proposes that dissociation is one mechanism by which traumatized individuals can be unaware of information that could threaten an important relationship. This chapter proposes a view of dissociation as a set of characteristics, including information processing tendencies, that can be organized into two separate but connected branches of symptoms. One branch consists of more transient, normative dissociative experiences without a trauma-based etiology, and the other consists of trauma-based dissociation that is less transient and more severe. Dissociative information processing includes differences in dividing and directing attention, as well as defi cits in memory and metacognition. Suggestions are discussed for future research regarding dissociation as an adaptive information processing style.
Severe dissociation involves a profound fragmentation of the self. It affects and is affected by physiological responses, cognitions, and social interactions. As part of this fragmentation of self, dissociation can also be seen as a fragmented style of information processing, whether the information to be processed consists of stimuli in a laboratory or emotions in everyday life. In this chapter we present the viewpoint that the dissociative information processing style is developed as an adaptation to trauma, and is a way to not know about potentially threatening information. A primary type of threatening information is that which threatens a necessary attachment relationship. Using betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1996, 2001), we explain in this chapter why it may be advantageous for a trauma victim’s survival to dissociate information that threatens the attachment relationship. First we offer a framework for understanding the phenomenology of dissociation based on the idea of two branches.

Full text of 2007 short version: available on this site. PDF full text

Foynes, M.M., Freyd, J.J., & DePrince, A.P. (2009).  Child abuse: Betrayal and disclosure.  Child Abuse and Neglect, 33, 209-217.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract.  Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press].We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure would vary as a function of victim–perpetrator closeness. Methods: Data collected from 202 undergraduate participants using a survey methodology were submitted to logistic regression analyses. The relative variance explained by other variables was also examined. Results: Compared to survivors of emotional abuse (EA) who were in not very close (NVC) victim–perpetrator relationships, EA survivors in very close (VC) victim–perpetrator relationships were significantly more likely to wait 1 or more years to disclose, or never to disclose, than to wait a period of time less than 1 year (OR = 2.65). Further, survivors of physical abuse (PA) in VC victim–perpetrator relationships were significantly more likely to wait 1 or more years to disclose their abuse, if it was disclosed at all, than PA survivors of NVC victim–perpetrator relationships (OR = 3.99). Results for sexual abuse were not significant. Conclusions: For EA and PA, VC victim–perpetrator relationships predicted longer durations of time from abuse to its disclosure than NVC victim–perpetrator relationships. Practice implications: Although delayed disclosure may support necessary (albeit abusive) attachments with caregivers, it may also prolong the abuse and prevent receipt of support. Increased awareness that VC victim–perpetrator relationships may predict longer durations of time from abuse to its disclosure, and that these delays may serve a functional purpose, can help guide supportive and empathic responses to traumatic disclosures.

Goldsmith, R.E., Freyd, J.J. & DePrince, A.P.(2009). To Add Insight to Injury: Childhood Abuse, Abuse Perceptions, and the Emotional and Physical Health of Young Adults. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 18, 350 — 366

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract.  Although childhood abuse is strongly associated with psychological difficulties, survivors may not perceive their experiences as abusive. Depression, anxiety, dissociation, and physical health complaints may decrease perceptions of abuse and may also be exacerbated by individuals’ abuse perceptions. The current study examined abuse perceptions, abuse experiences, and current symptoms among 185 university students. Ninety-six participants repeated the study 1–2 years later. At Time 1, self-labeling as “abused” or “maltreated” was not related to psychological or physical health symptoms. At Time 2, self-labeling as “abused” or “maltreated” was positively related to depression, anxiety, and dissociation. Results indicate that abuse perceptions may change over time and may be connected with emotional and physical symptoms.

Freyd, J.J. (2009) Rules of conscience: Betray ethics, betray trust [Letter]. BMJ, 338, b2191.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Becker-Blease, K.A., Cheit, R.E., & Freyd, J.J. (2009). Sexual abuse: Legal and public policy perspectives. In R. A. Shweder (Ed.) The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion (pp. 885-887), Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Platt, M., Barton, J., & Freyd, J.J. (2009). A betrayal trauma perspective on domestic violence.  In E. Stark & E. S. Buzawa (Eds.) Violence against Women in Families and Relationships (Vol. 1, pp. 185-207).  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Freyd, J.J. (2009). Journal Ethics and Impact. [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 10, 377 – 384.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Gobin, R.L. & Freyd, J.J. (2009). Betrayal and revictimization: Preliminary findings.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 242-257.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: The link between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent sexual, emotional, and physical revictimization has been widely reported. The literature is limited, however, in its exploration of the extent to which the level of betrayal inherent in a given childhood traumatic experience affects the likelihood of experiencing similar revictimization in adolescence and adulthood. This study assessed revictimization within a betrayal trauma framework among a sample of 271 college students. As predicted, individuals who reported experiencing high-betrayal trauma at any time point (childhood, adolescence, or adulthood) were more likely to report experiences of trauma high in betrayal during adolescence and adulthood. Relative risk ratios suggest that those who experience childhood trauma high in betrayal are 4.31 times more likely to be victimized in adolescence and 5.44 times more likely to be victimized in adulthood. Logistic regression analyses identified rate of childhood high-betrayal traumas and high levels of traumatic symptoms as significant predictors of high-betrayal trauma victimization in adolescence. Finally, participants’ responses to an exploratory self-report measure examining the relationship among revictimization, awareness for interpersonal betrayals, and response to betrayals in interpersonal contexts were analyzed. Preliminary findings indicate that revictimization risk may be linked to inaccurate identification of specific intimate partner betrayals and the inability to engage in proper self-protection. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

Cromer, L.D. & Freyd, J.J.  (2009). Hear no evil, see no evil? Associations of gender, trauma history, and values with believing trauma vignettes.  Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 85-96

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Attitudes and beliefs about sexual assault in general influence judgments about the veracity of specific sexual assault reports and disclosures (Taylor, 2007). The present study investigated the impact of gender, personal trauma history, and beliefs about gender and child sexual abuse (CSA) on judgments of the veracity of CSA disclosures. The study also examined judgments about other kinds of trauma disclosures using a variety of different types of trauma vignettes. Men were found to be more skeptical than women, and those who reported no trauma history were less likely than those who reported a trauma history to believe disclosures. Overall, all participants were more skeptical about CSA disclosures than disclosures about other kinds of trauma. Sexism and belief in CSA myths (CSAMs) were negatively related to believing adults’ retrospective CSA disclosures. In a series of regression analyses, we observed that belief in CSAMs moderated the negative association between sexist attitudes and believing disclosures. Implications for educating professionals are discussed.

Pezdek, K. & Freyd, J.J. (2009). The fallacy of generalizing from egg salad in false belief research.  Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 9, 177-183.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Geraerts et al. (2008) reported that misleading individuals with false beliefs about having gotten sick on egg salad in childhood can reduce the probability of subsequently consuming egg salad. They concluded that their results “. . . have important implications for people’s food and dieting choices. . .” (p. 752). We argue that their conclusion represents a fundamental generalization problem. We report new findings that, together with other recent studies, data on disgust and the fact that hard boiled eggs produce a chemical associated with rotten food, suggest that Geraerts et al.’s success in reducing individuals’ interest in eating egg salad is likely restricted to less appealing foods that are less frequently consumed. Because of potential applicability of their results to public health and well-being, and the more general applicability of the false-feedback paradigm to legal cases, it is important to accurately limit these conclusions and generalizations.

DePrince, A.P., Becker-Blease, K.A., Freyd, J, J. (2009). Forgetting sexual abuse: Conceptualizations of why and how questions. In V. Ardino (Ed.), Il Disturbo Post-traumatico da Stress nello sviluppo. ["Developmental PTSD"] (pp. 153-171). Milan, Italy: Unicopli.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text (11 MB)

Kaehler, L.A. & Freyd, J.J. (2009). Borderline personality characteristics: A betrayal trauma approach.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 261-268.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has been associated with both trauma and insecure attachment styles. Betrayal Trauma Theory proposes survivors of interpersonal trauma may remain unaware of betrayal in order to maintain a necessary attachment. This preliminary study reports on the relations between self-reports of betrayal trauma experiences and borderline personality characteristics in a college sample. Using multiple regression, betrayal was significantly associated with BPD characteristics. High-betrayal trauma was the largest contributor to borderline traits and medium-betrayal trauma was also a significant predictor. However, traumas of low betrayal were not associated with BPD features. These results stand even after controlling for gender. These findings suggest betrayal may be a key, and yet heretofore unaddressed, feature of borderline personality disorder.

2010 Articles:

 

Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & DePrince, A.P. (2010). Avoiding awareness of betrayal: Comment on Lindblom and Gray (2009).  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 20-26.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. Betrayal trauma theory (BTT) predicts that unawareness of abuse by someone on whom a victim is dependent may serve to protect a necessary relationship. Lindblom and Gray (2009) contribute to a growing line of BTT studies by measuring narrative detail in a sample of undergraduates who met Criterion A of the PTSD diagnosis and who rated the abuse as their most distressing trauma. Although many core betrayal traumas do not fit Criterion A, Lindblom and Gray found a small effect in the predicted direction. Having found an effect as predicted by BTT, curiously the authors then argue that PTSD Avoidance is a confound for forgetting the abuse to be statistically managed. This is particularly curious since symptom 3 of Criterion C is ‘inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma’. Despite constraining participant selection and other methodological issues, Lindblom and Gray’s results add support to BTT.

Zurbriggen, E.L., Gobin, R., & Freyd, J.J. (2010). Childhood Emotional Abuse Predicts Late Adolescent Sexual Aggression Perpetration and Victimization.  Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19, 204-223.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. Childhood physical and sexual abuse are known risk factors for adult sexual aggression perpetration and victimization, but less is known about the role played by childhood emotional abuse. College sophomores were surveyed regarding their childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse victimization and their late-adolescent experiences of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration. Controlling for social desirability and childhood physical and sexual abuse, childhood emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of adolescent sexual perpetration for women and the strongest predictor of adolescent sexual victimization for men. Emotional abuse was a marginally reliable predictor of adolescent sexual victimization in women. These results show the importance of childhood emotional abuse victimization as a risk factor for sexual victimization and perpetration in adolescent intimate relationships.

Freyd, J.J. (2010) State of the Journal. [Editorial] Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11, 385-386.

 

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Martin, C.G., Cromer, L.D. & Freyd, J.J.  (2010) Teachers’ Beliefs about Maltreatment Effects on Student Learning and Classroom Behavior. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 3, 245 - 254.

 

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. This study sought to examine teachers' perceptions of child maltreatment. Teachers (N = 66) responded to open-ended questions asking how physical and sexual abuse and emotional neglect affect student learning and classroom behavior in an online survey. Teachers reported that maltreatment outcomes manifest in academic difficulties, attention-deficit, disruptive and internalizing behaviors, and other maltreatment-related sequelae. Teachers reported more negative consequences from attention-deficit and disruptive behaviors on classroom behavior compared to all other maltreatment outcomes combined. Given the overlapping behaviors exhibited by maltreated children and children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating teachers on these similarities to better assist them in detecting and responding appropriately to potential cases of child maltreatment.

2011 Articles:

 

Foynes, M.M. & Freyd, J.J.  (2011). The Impact of Skills Training on Responses to the Disclosure of Mistreatment. Psychology of Violence1, 66-77.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. Objective: Although disclosure of mistreatment can be beneficial, the effects of disclosure are largely contingent on the quality of responses received. An experimental design was used to evaluate a set of skills-training materials (STMs; Foynes & Freyd, 2010) designed to improve supportive responding to the disclosure of mistreatment experiences. Method: Dyads of university students and community members (N = 110) were randomly assigned to condition (experimental or control) and role (discloser or listener). After completing a series of questionnaires, the “discloser” was asked to describe an experience of mistreatment not previously disclosed to the “listener.” Dyads completed postdisclosure questionnaires, reviewed a set of STMs regarding either healthy lifestyle improvements (control) or supportive listening techniques (experimental), and completed a quiz. A second experience of mistreatment was disclosed and a final set of questionnaires was completed. Results: Results indicated that listeners in the experimental condition demonstrated significantly fewer unsupportive behaviors than listeners in the control condition. Listeners who started with high levels of unsupportive behaviors benefitted the most from the STMs. Conclusions: The STMs developed for this study are relatively short in length, easy to administer, and informed by disclosers’ perceptions of supportive behaviors. Thus, these materials could serve as a preliminary step toward developing more effective ways of providing lay people with education on enhancing supportive listening behaviors.

Becker-Blease, K.A., DePrince, A.P., & Freyd, J.J. (2011). Why and how people forget sexual abuse.  In V. Ardino (Ed.),Posttraumatic Syndromes in Children and Adolescents. (pp 135-155)  West Sussex, UK:  Wiley/Blackwell.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text (9 MB)

Hulette, A.C., Kaehler, L.A., & Freyd, J.J. (2011).  Intergenerational associations between trauma and dissociation.  Journal of Family Violence, 26, 217-225..

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate intergenerational relationships between trauma and dissociation. Short and long term consequences of betrayal trauma (i.e., trauma perpetrated by someone with whom the victim is very close) on dissociation were examined in a sample of 67 mother-child dyads using group comparison and regression strategies. Experiences of high betrayal trauma were found to be related to higher levels of dissociation in both children and mothers. Furthermore, mothers who experienced high betrayal trauma in childhood and were subsequently interpersonally revictimized in adulthood were shown to have higher levels of dissociation than non-revictimized mothers. Maternal revictimization status was associated with child interpersonal trauma history. These results suggest that dissociation from a history of childhood betrayal trauma may involve a persistent unawareness of future threats to both self and children.

Hulette, A.C., Freyd, J.J., & Fisher, P. A. (2011). Dissociation in middle childhood among foster children with early maltreatment experiences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 123-126.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

Chu, A.T., Pineda, A.S., DePrince, A.P., & Freyd, J.J. (2011). Vulnerability and protective factors for child abuse and maltreatment. In J.W. White, M.P. Koss, & A.E. Kazdin (Eds.) Violence against women and children, Volume 1: Mapping the Terrain (pp 55-75). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

 

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text (9 MB)

Freyd, J.J. . (2011). Journal vitality, intellectual integrity, and the problems of McEthics [Editorial] Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 12, 475-481

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text

2012 Articles:

 

DePrince, A.P, Brown, L.S., Cheit, R.E., Freyd, J.J., Gold, S.N., Pezdek, K. & Quina, K (2012). Motivated forgetting and misremembering: Perspectives from Betrayal Trauma Theory.  In Belli, R. F. (Ed.), True and False Recovered Memories: Toward a Reconciliation of the Debate (Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 58) (pp 193-243). New York: Springer.

 

Full text: available on this site (pdf, 4MB). PDF full text.
Abstract. Individuals are sometimes exposed to information that may endanger their well-being. In such cases, forgetting or misremembering may be adaptive. Childhood abuse perpetrated by a caregiver is an example. Betrayal trauma theory (BTT) proposes that the way in which events are processed and remembered will be related to the degree to which a negative event represents a betrayal by a trusted, needed other. Full awareness of such abuse may only increase the victim's risk by motivating withdrawal or confrontation with the perpetrator, thus risking a relationship vital to the victim's survival. In such situations, minimizing awareness of the betrayal trauma may be adaptive. BTT has implications for the larger memory and trauma field, particularly with regard to forgetting and misrembering events. This chapter reviews conceptual and empirical issues central to the literature on memory for trauma and BTT as well as identifies future research directions derived from BTT.

Goldsmith, R., Freyd, J.J., & DePrince, A.P. (2012) Betrayal trauma: Associations with psychological and physical symptoms in young adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 547-567.

 

 

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract. Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms of trauma as predictors of young adults’ psychological and physical symptoms, and explored potential mediators. A total of 185 university undergraduate students completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness. For each set of symptoms, simultaneous multiple regressions assessed the relative contributions of low versus high betrayal trauma to psychological and physical health reports. Structural equation models examined traumatic stress symptoms and alexithymia as mediators of the relationship between betrayal trauma and physical health symptoms. A total of 151 participants (82%) reported exposure to at least 1 of 11 forms of trauma queried (M = 2.08,SD = 1.94); 96 participants (51.9%) reported at least 1 betrayal trauma. Traumas characterized by high betrayal predicted alexithymia, anxiety, depression, dissociation, physical health complaints, and the number of days students reported being sick during the past month, whereas other traumas did not. Structural equation modeling revealed that traumatic stress symptoms and alexithymia mediated the association between betrayal trauma and physical health complaints. These results indicate that betrayal trauma is associated with young adults’ physical and mental health difficulties to a greater extent than are other forms of trauma. Results may inform assessment, intervention, and prevention efforts.

Edwards, V. J., Freyd, J. J., Dube, S.R., Anda, R.F., & Felitti, V.J. (2012). Health outcomes by closeness of sexual abuse perpetrator: A test of Betrayal Trauma Theory.  Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21, 133-148.

Full text: available on this site. PDF full text.
Abstract: Betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1996) postulates childhood abuse perpetrated by a caregiver or someone close to the victim results in worse mental health than abuse perpetrated by a noncaregiver. Using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) data, we tested whether adults with high betrayal (HB) abuse would report poorer functional and mental health than low betrayal (LB) abuse victims. Among those participants reporting childhood sexual abuse, 32% experienced HB abuse. HB victims had a higher average ACE score than LB victims (2.72 vs. 1.87, p < .001), had significantly lower functional health scores on 4 of the 7 SF–36 Health Survey scales (all p < .04), and reported higher depression, anxiety, suicidality, panic, and anger (all p < .05).

Platt, M. & Freyd, J.J. (2012) Trauma and Negative Underlying Assumptions in Feelings of Shame: An Exploratory Study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4, 370-378.

 

Full Text: available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Shame is a common, although understudied, reaction to trauma. It is associated with numerous negative outcomes after trauma including emotional distress and health problems. Using a mixed experimental and correlational design, this study explored the association between trauma exposure, negative underlying assumptions (NUAs; attitudes such as “If I make a mistake, it means I am a bad person”), and feelings of shame. Our objectives were (1) to examine the association between trauma history and NUAs, (2) to examine the effects of trauma history and NUAs on shame in response to negative or positive feedback, and (3) to provide incremental evidence of validation for the Shame Posture Measure. After participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing NUAs, trauma history, and shame, they completed a short problem set and were randomly assigned to receive positive or negative feedback on their work. Changes in state shame were examined after feedback. We found that: (1) participants who scored high on NUAs were much more likely to have experienced a traumatic event than were people with low NUA scores; (2) people with high NUAs and with a history of at least one traumatic event were much more likely than any other group to experience shame in response to negative feedback; (3) the Shame Posture Measure demonstrated evidence of validity for measuring state shame. We discuss clinical implications of the finding that the unique combination of NUAs and having experienced at least one psychological trauma creates a strong vulnerability to shame.

Kaehler, L.A., & Freyd, J.J. (2012) Betrayal Trauma and Borderline Personality Characteristics: Gender Differences. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4, 379-385.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Borderline Personality Disorder has been linked to both trauma and insecure attachment styles. Betrayal Trauma Theory proposes those who have experienced interpersonal trauma may remain unaware of betrayal in order to maintain a necessary attachment. This study attempts to replicate the association between self-reported betrayal trauma experiences and borderline personality characteristics found by Kaehler and Freyd (2009); however, this project includes participants from a community, rather than a college, sample. Using multiple regression, all three levels of betrayal (high, medium, and low) and gender were significant predictors of borderline personality characteristics. Separate regression analyses were conducted for both genders to explore the associations of betrayal trauma on these traits. For men, all three levels of betrayal trauma were significant predictors; for women, only high and medium betrayal traumas were significant. These findings suggest trauma may be a key factor of borderline personality disorder, with differential effects for betrayal and gender.

Tang, S.S., & Freyd, J.J.  (2012). Betrayal trauma and gender differences in posttraumatic stress.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,4,469-478.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of betrayal trauma in explaining why women report higher rates of posttraumatic stress than men. Betrayal trauma theory posits that cognitive dissociation is adaptive when trauma occurs at the hands of a caregiver (Freyd, 1996). Betrayal trauma has also been linked to poorer outcomes in mental health, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (DePrince & Freyd, 2002; Goldsmith, 2004). DePrince and Freyd (2002) proposed that the increased frequency with which females experience betrayals accounts in part for the correspondingly higher rates of PTSD and dissociative disorders among women. Thus, it is possible that closeness to the perpetrator acts as a partial mediator of gender differences in prevalence rates (Goldberg & Freyd, 2006). Using an online survey with a college sample ( n = 1,041) and a community sample ( n = 199), the findings of the current study confirmed prior research that traumas high in betrayal (e.g., abuse by a close other) are more strongly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress than traumas lower in betrayal (e.g., natural disaster or abuse by someone not close to the victim). Women also reported higher rates of depression, anxiety, and reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD, but not avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The hypothesis that betrayal trauma would mediate the association between gender and PTSD reexperiencing symptoms was supported by statistical significance, but the effect was not substantial.

Barlow, M. R., Cromer, L. D., Caron, H., & Freyd, J. J. (2012). Comparison of normative and diagnosed dissociation on attachment to companion animals and stuffed animals. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4, 501-506.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Companion animals can serve as sources of love and attachment during times of stress. Stuffed animals, too, can provide comfort and stability. However, little research has examined companion animal attachment in highly dissociative trauma survivors, and no studies have systematically assessed stuffed animal attachment in dissociative adults. College student samples with either high or low dissociation levels and a sample of women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) completed questionnaires about attachment to companion animals and stuffed animals. The DID group was more attached to companion animals than were either of the student groups. High-dissociating students and DID participants were more attached to stuffed animals than were low-dissociating students. Implications for further research and therapeutic interventions are discussed.

Freyd, J.J. (2012). A Plea to University Researchers.  [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13, 497-508.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

2013 Articles:

 

 

 


Johnson-Freyd, S. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). Revenge and forgiveness or betrayal blindness? [Commentary]. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 23-24.

 

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: McCullough et al. hypothesize that evolution has selected mechanisms for revenge to deter harms and for forgiveness to preserve valuable relationships. However, in highly dependent relationships, the more adaptive course of action may be to remain unaware of the initial harm rather than risk alienating a needed other. We present a testable model of possible victim responses to interrelational harm.

Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). Dangerous Safe Havens: Institutional Betrayal Exacerbates Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 119-124.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Research has documented the profound negative impact of betrayal within experiences of interpersonal trauma such as sexual assault (Freyd, 1994, 1996; Freyd, DePrince, & Gleaves, 2007). In the current study of college women (N = 345, 79% Caucasian; mean age = 19.69 years, SD = 2.55), we examined whether institutional failure to prevent sexual assault or respond supportively when it occurs may similarly exacerbate posttraumatic symptomatology—what we call “institutional betrayal.” Almost half (47%) of the women reported at least one coercive sexual experience and another 21% reported no coercion, but at least one unwanted sexual experience (total reporting unwanted sexual experiences, N = 233). Institutional betrayal (e.g., creating an environment where these experiences seemed more likely, making it difficult to report these experiences) was reported across different unwanted sexual experiences (47% and 45% of women reporting coercion and no coercion, respectively). Those women who reported institutional betrayal surrounding their unwanted sexual experience reported increased levels of anxiety (R2 = .10), trauma-specific sexual symptoms (R2 = .17), dissociation (R2 = .11), and problematic sexual functioning (R2 = .12). These results suggest that institutions have the power to cause additional harm to assault survivors.

Martin, C.G., Cromer, L.D., DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). The role of cumulative trauma, betrayal, and appraisals in understanding trauma symptomatology. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5, 110-118.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The present study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low, moderate, or high in betrayal (HBT). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms beyond the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined effect on trauma symptomatology are discussed.

Foynes, M.M. & Freyd, J.J. (2013). An Exploratory Study Evaluating Responses to the Disclosure of Stressful Life Experiences as they Occurred in Real Time.Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5, 295-300.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text
Abstract: Recovery from stressful life experiences, including traumas, frequently involves telling others what happened. While it has been previously demonstrated that supportive responses to disclosures of such experiences are important predictors of positive outcome, less is known about the constituents of supportive responses. This exploratory study was meant to help operationalize supportive responses to first-time disclosures. The sample comprised 53 dyads of university students and community members. One member of each pair was randomly selected to disclose an experience not previously disclosed to the other participant; this interaction was videotaped for subsequent coding and analyses. Participants completed pre- and postdisclosure self-report measures. Using the coders' and disclosers' ratings of listeners' behaviors, we examined the impact of listeners' verbal and nonverbal responses to disclosures and identified two modifiable behaviors (interruptions and posture) that contributed to conveying support. Results indicated that leaning backward was associated with coders' ratings of negative responses to disclosure and moderate levels of interruption were associated with the most supportive responses to disclosure. Relational health was found to be a strong predictor of disclosers' perceptions of support. Despite its limitations, this study represents an important preliminary step in research examining supportive responses to disclosure and identifying characteristics of supportive responses. Such information can be used to guide friends and family in responding more supportively to first-time disclosures of stressful life experiences.

Kaehler, L.A., Babcock, R., DePrince, A.P., Freyd, J.J. (2013).  Betrayal trauma.  In J.D. Ford & C.A. Courtois (Eds.) Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Scientific Foundations and Therapeutic Models (pp 62-78). New York: The Guilford Press.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Klest, B., Freyd, J.J., Hampson, S.E., & Dubanoski, J.P. (2013). Trauma, socioeconomic resources, and self-rated health in an ethnically diverse adult cohort. Ethnicity and Health, 18, 97-113.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design. Across a 10-year period (1998–2008), participants (N=833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results. Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition, there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion. These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations.

Freyd, J.J. (2013). Preventing Betrayal.  [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 14, 495-500.

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

 

Klest, B., Freyd, J.J., & Foynes, M.M. (2013). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic symptoms in Hawaii: Gender, ethnicity, and social context.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5, 409-416.

 

 

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Eight-hundred and 33 members of an ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort study in Hawaii were surveyed about their personal exposure to several types of traumatic events, socioeconomic resources, and mental health symptoms. Results replicated findings from prior research that while men and women are exposed to similar rates of trauma overall, women report more exposure to traumas high in betrayal (HB), while men report exposure to more traumas lower in betrayal (LB). Trauma exposure was predictive of mental health symptoms, with neglect, household dysfunction, and HB traumas predicting symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and sleep disturbance, and LB traumas predicting PTSD and dissociation symptoms. Native Hawaiian ethnicity and poorer socioeconomic status were predictive of greater trauma exposure and symptoms. Results suggest that more inclusive definitions of trauma are important for gender equity, and that ethnic group variation in symptoms is better explained by factors such as differential trauma exposure and economic and social status differences, rather than minority status per se.

2014 Articles:

 

 

 


Foynes, M.M., Platt, M., Hall, G.C.N., Freyd, J.J. (2014). The impact of Asian values and victim−perpetrator closeness on the disclosure of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6, 134-141.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Prior research indicates that survivors of abuse characterized by very close victim perpetrator relationships (VC traumas) are significantly more likely to delay disclosure for 1 or more years, or never to disclose, than survivors of abuse characterized by not very close victimperpetrator relationships (NVC traumas) (M. M. Foynes, J. J. Freyd, & A. P. Deprince, 2009, Child abuse, betrayal and disclosure, Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 209–217). Nondisclosure of abuse may serve a protective function in that it allows for the maintenance of a necessary, albeit abusive, relationship. This dynamic may be particularly relevant for people who adhere strongly to Asian cultural values of interdependence and may be differentially applicable to disclosure of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. An online study was conducted with Asian Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs; N  266) to test the hypothesis that Asian values, rather than ethnic group membership, would be associated with decreased disclosure of VC abuse, but not affect disclosure of NVC abuse. The impact of Asian values was expected to be the strongest for disclosure of VC sexual abuse. A series of backward stepwise logistic regressions revealed that Asian values, but not ethnicity, were significantly associated with nondisclosure of VC sexual and emotional abuse, but not VC physical abuse. Neither ethnicity nor Asian values was associated with disclosure of any type of NVC abuse. Female gender increased the odds of VC abuse disclosure only. By examining the impact of cultural values on disclosure of particular abuse types and uncovering the limitations of attending to ethnicity alone, we hope to inform efforts toward facilitating recovery from trauma and creating more supportive environments for survivors.


Bernstein, R.E., & Freyd, J.J. (2014). Trauma at home: How betrayal trauma and attachment theories understand the human response to abuse by an attachment figure. New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis, 8, 18-41.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

First Paragraph: At its foundation, attachment theory (AT) (Bowlby, 1969) is a theory of developmental psychology that uses evolutionary and ethological frameworks to describe how the caregiver*–child relationship emerges and how it influences subsequent social, emotional, and cognitive development. And while AT emerged out of observations of child–caregiver dynamics, it was quickly and readily generalised to address similar psychosocial phenomena within adult romantic relationships (e.g., Hazan & Shaver, 1987, 1994). Betrayal trauma theory (BTT) (Freyd, 1994, 1996), building on the most central concepts of AT, has focused very specifically on understanding psychological responses to trauma. Like AT, BTT proposes that trauma occurring within the context of an attachment relationship is qualitatively different than trauma that takes place outside of one. Also as with AT, BTT was first developed with the child–caregiver relationship in mind but has since been applied to other adult relationships, including not only romantic relationships but hierarchical relationships (such as that between an employer and an employee, or an institution and its member) as well (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Smith & Freyd, 2013).


Smith, C.P, Gomez, J. M., & Freyd, J. J. (2014). The Psychology of Judicial Betrayal.  Roger Williams University Law Review, 19, 451-475.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

 


Gómez, J. M., Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2014). Zwischenmenschlicher und institutioneller verrat [Interpersonal and institutional betrayal].  In R. Vogt (Ed.), Verleumdung und Verrat: Dissoziative Störungen bei schwer traumatisierten Menschen als Folge von Vertrauensbrüchen (pp. 82-90). Roland, Germany: Asanger Verlag.

 

 


 


DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). Trauma-induced dissociation. In M.J. Friedman, T.M. Keane, & P.A. Resick (Eds.), Handbook of PTSD: Science & Practice, Second Edition (pp 219-233). New York: Guilford Press. [Updated version of DePrince & Freyd (2007).]

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

 


Freyd, J.J. (2014). Official campus statistics for sexual violence mislead. [Op-Ed] Al Jazeera America, July 14, 2014.

 

 

Editorial: Official campus statistics for sexual violence mislead
A school with a lower rate may just be better at discouraging students from reporting assault

Last month, The Washington Post released a compilation of reported rates of campus sexual assault nationwide. Such reports, which colleges and universities are required to release each year, are generally thought to be useful to the public. Parents of college-bound high school students who read that School A has a higher rate of reported sexual violence than School B can make more informed decisions about where their children will be safest. And they might very reasonably think that School A is a more dangerous school. However, the higher rate of reported sexual violence at School A likely indicates the opposite: that it is actually safer than School B. It means that School A is making it possible for — even encouraging — students to report sexual violence. More: on-line version

Full Text pdf also available on this site. PDF full text


Gómez, J.M. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). Institutional betrayal makes violence more toxic. [Op-Ed] The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), August 22, 2014, p A9.

 

 

Editorial: Institutional betrayal makes violence more toxic.

“Further institutional betrayals can occur when the wrongdoing is denied and when those who blow the whistle are punished.”

 


Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2014).  Institutional betrayal.  American Psychologist, 69, 575-587.

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: A college freshman reports a sexual assault and is met with harassment and insensitive investigative practices leading to her suicide. Former grade school students, now grown, come forward to report childhood abuse perpetrated by clergy, coaches, and teachers—first in trickles and then in waves, exposing multiple perpetrators with decades of unfettered access to victims. Members of the armed services elect to stay quiet about sexual harassment and assault during their military service or risk their careers by speaking up. A Jewish academic struggles to find a name for the systematic destruction of his people in Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. These seemingly disparate experiences have in common trusted and powerful institutions (schools, churches, military, government) acting in ways that visit harm upon those dependent on them for safety and well-being. This is institutional betrayal. The purpose of this article is to describe psychological research that examines the role of institutions in traumatic experiences and psychological distress following these experiences. We demonstrate the ways in which institutional betrayal has been left unseen by both the individuals being betrayed as well as the field of psychology and introduce means by which to identify and address this betrayal.

 


Gobin, R.L. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). The Impact of Betrayal Trauma on the Tendency to Trust. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6, 505-511

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Early experiences of violation perpetrated by close others, or betrayal traumas, may interfere with developing social capacities, including the ability to make healthy decisions about whom to trust. Betrayal trauma theory posits that survivors of trauma are at increased risk of making inaccurate trust decisions in interpersonal contexts, thus interfering with intimacy and elevating risk for revictimization. The current study examined the impact of betrayal trauma exposure on trust tendencies using both self-report and behavioral measures in a college sample. Self-report measures were used to explore general and relational (partner-specific) trust. The Trust Game, an experimental economics task, was used to investigate differences in trust tendencies between participants with and without histories of high betrayal trauma. As predicted, and in line with previous findings, high betrayal trauma exposure was associated with lower levels of self-reported general and relational trust. Self-reported general trust correlated positively with behavior during the Trust Game. Contrary to our hypothesis, participants with high betrayal trauma histories were not significantly more or less willing to trust during the Trust Game. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.

 


Smith, C.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). The courage to study what we wish did not exist.  [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 15, 521-526.

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text


 


Delker, B.C. & Freyd, J.J. (2014). From betrayal to the bottle: Investigating possible pathways from trauma to problematic substance use. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 576-584.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Research in both community and clinical settings has found that exposure to cumulative interpersonal trauma predicts substance use problems. Less is known about betrayal as a dimension of trauma exposure that predicts substance use, and about the behavioral and psychological pathways that explain the relation between trauma and substance use. In a sample of 362 young adults, this study evaluated three intervening pathways between betrayal trauma exposure prior to age 18 years and problematic substance use: (a) substance use to cope with negative affect, (b) difficulty discerning and/or heeding risk, and (c) self-destructiveness. In addition, exposure to trauma low in betrayal (e.g., earthquake) was included in the model. Bootstrap tests of indirect effects revealed that betrayal trauma prior to age 18 years was associated with problematic substance use via posttraumatic stress and two intervening pathways: difficulty discerning/heeding risk (β = .07, p < .001), and self-destructiveness (β = .12, p < .001). Exposure to lower betrayal trauma was not associated with posttraumatic stress or problematic substance use. Results contribute to a trauma-informed understanding of substance use that persists despite potentially harmful consequences.


 


Freyd, J.J. (2014) Use science as tool on campus sexual assault.  [Op-Ed] The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), November 9, 2014, p H4.

 

Link to article

 


Gomez, J. M., Kaehler, L. A., & Freyd, J. J. (2014). Are hallucinations related to betrayal trauma exposure? A three-study exploration. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy, 6, 675-682.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Betrayal trauma theory proposes that one response to betrayal may be to keep knowledge of the trauma out of conscious awareness. Although this betrayal blindness may be beneficial for survival while the abuse is ongoing because it helps maintain crucial relationships, this distortion of reality can lead to subsequent psychological and behavioral problems. The current article presents three exploratory studies that examine the associations among exposure to betrayal trauma, dissociation, and hallucinations. The first study (N  397) examined the associations between exposure to medium and high betrayal trauma and dissociation. The second study (N  199) examined the associations between exposure to low, medium, and high betrayal trauma and hallucinations. The third study (N  566) examined the associations between medium and high betrayal child and adolescent/adult sexual abuse and hallucinations. Our results suggest that exposure to betrayal trauma increases the likelihood of both dissociation and hallucinations. These findings provide further evidence that the toxic nature of betrayal in traumas has lasting effects on both cognitive and perceptual processes—dissociation and hallucinations— having implications for therapeutic treatment for individuals who have experienced betrayal traumas and related outcomes.


2015 Articles:

 

 

 


Gomez, J. M., Becker-Blease, K., & Freyd, J. J. (2015). A brief report on predicting self-harm: Is it gender or abuse that matters? Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma,  24, 203-214.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Self-harm, which consists of nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide, is a public health problem that is not well understood. There is conflicting evidence on the role of gender in predicting self-harm. Abuse history also is a potentially relevant factor to explore, as it is related to both gender and self-harm. In this study, we hypothesized that abuse history, as opposed to gender, would predict self-harm. Three hundred and ninety-seven undergraduates completed a self-report survey that assessed abuse history, nonsuicidal self-injury, and attempted suicide. The results suggested that abuse history predicted nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide. These findings can inform clinical interventions as they reinforce the importance of including abuse history in the conceptualizations and treatment of self-harm.

Platt, M.G., & Freyd, J. J. (2015). Betray my trust, shame on me: Shame, dissociation, fear, and betrayal trauma.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy, 7, 398-404.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Recent research suggests that betrayal is a fundamental dimension of trauma that may be a major factor contributing to posttraumatic distress (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). In the current study using a college student sample of female trauma survivors, (N = 124; 79% Caucasian; mean age = 20.40, SD = 3.60), we examined the contribution of high- and low-betrayal trauma history to shame, dissociation, and fear responses to threat. We hypothesized that (a) overall, shame and dissociation would be higher following interpersonal compared with noninterpersonal threat; (b) high- but not low-betrayal trauma history would predict increased shame and dissociation following interpersonal threat; and (c) low- but not high-betrayal trauma history would predict increased fear following noninterpersonal threat. Hypothesis 1 was not supported. There was no difference in overall shame and dissociation following interpersonal compared with noninterpersonal threat. Hypotheses 2 and 3 were supported. History of high- but not low-betrayal trauma predicted increases in shame (R² = .14) and dissociation (R² = .23) following interpersonal threat, whereas history of low- but not high-betrayal trauma predicted increases in fear (R² = .07) following noninterpersonal threat. These results contribute to growing evidence that perpetrator closeness matters when considering posttraumatic responses. Shame and dissociation warrant more clinical attention as possible barriers to effective exposure therapy among betrayal trauma survivors.

Bernstein, R. E., Delker, B. C., Knight, J. A., & Freyd, J. J. (2015) Hypervigilance in college students: Associations with betrayal and dissociation and psychometric properties in a Brief Hypervigilance Scale. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy, 7, 448-455.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract:Betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1994, 1996) proposes that traumas high in social betrayal are expected to lead to psychological outcomes of dissociation, amnesia, and/or shame because these responses are adaptive to a survivor trying to preserve a necessary relationship in the face of mistreatment. Within the field of trauma studies more generally, there is substantial support for the proposition that traumas that cause intense fear should lead to posttraumatic anxiety and hypervigilance. Despite ample evidence for both theorized causal pathways, very few studies have tested associations between betrayal exposure, hypervigilance, and dissociation. The current study had 2 aims: first, as no self-report measure of hypervigilance had been developed for nonveteran populations, we sought to identify a subset of Hypervigilance Questionnaire (Knight, 1993) items that validly and reliably measure hypervigilance within college undergraduates (n = 489; 62.6% female, 69.9% Caucasian) with and without elevated levels of posttraumatic stress. Second, we tested the associations among trauma history, hypervigilance, and dissociation. Psychometric analyses revealed 5 hypervigilance items we introduce as the Brief Hypervigilance Scale. Partial correlations revealed that each posttraumatic response was not related to a history of low betrayal trauma (i.e. non-interpersonal trauma) controlling for betrayal trauma (i.e. interpersonal trauma), but was related to betrayal trauma controlling for low betrayal trauma. These associations remained significant after controlling for the other posttraumatic response (i.e. hypervigilance or dissociation). Follow-up analyses revealed that hypervigilance was independently associated with adult, but not child high betrayal trauma, and the opposite was true for dissociation. Implications for theory, research, and clinical practice are discussed.

Gomez, J. M., Rosenthal, M. N., Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2015). Participant reactions to questions about gender-based sexual violence: Implications for campus climate surveys. eJournal of Public Affairs: Special Issue on Higher Education’s Role on Preventing and Responding to Gender-Based Violence, 4(2), 39-71.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: Gender-based sexual violence (GBSV) on college campuses has recently gained national attention in the United States.  In April 2014, the White House recommended that institutions of higher education conduct campus climate surveys to assess GBSV; however, despite decades of research on this topic, concerns continue to be raised about the safety of asking participants about prior victimization. Do college students experience harm from participating in campus climate surveys? This article examines findings and implications of a recent study using data from a recent campus climate survey that was designed to assess students’ reactions to participation and that was administered among undergraduates at a large public university.  The survey questions were based on risk-benefit concepts at the heart of institutional review board deliberations: (1) Do GBSV-related questions cause distress?; (2) Are GBSV-related questions rated as important?; (3) Is asking about violence perceived as a good idea? The majority of students indicated that they did not find the survey more distressing than day-to-day life experiences, they evaluated the questions about sexual violence as important, and they indicated that, taking into account both risks and benefits, asking about sexual violence is a good idea. Race did not impact participants’ reactions, while female gender affected slightly higher distress, and GBSV history impacted slightly more distress and greater perceived importance of the study; however, the practical significance of these small differences remains uncertain.  Collectively, the study’s findings can inform nationwide efforts in addressing GBSV on college campuses. The authors discuss limitations of the study and conclude with a consideration of directions for future research.

Freyd, J.J. (2015). Examining Denial Tactics: Were Victims Overrepresented in the AAU Survey of Sexual Violence on College Campuses? The Blog, Huffington Post, September 29, 2015.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text


Freyd, J.J. (2015). Proposal for a National Institute on Sexual Violence.  [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16, 497-499.

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text


2016 and In Press Articles:

 

Reinhardt, K. M., Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2016). Came to serve, left betrayed; MST and the trauma of betrayal. In L. S. Katz (Ed.), Understanding and treating military sexual trauma (pp. 61-78). New York: Springer..

 

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text


Rosenthal, M.N., Smidt, A.M., & Freyd, J.J. (2016). Still second class: Sexual harassment of graduate students. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40, 364-377.

.

Full Text available on this site. PDF full text

Abstract: We surveyed 525 graduate students (61.7% females and 38.3% males) regarding their exposure to sexual and gender-based harassing events. Thirty-eight percent of female and 23.4% of male participants self-reported that they had experienced sexual harassment from faculty or staff; 57.7% of female and 38.8% of male participants reported they had experienced sexual harassment from other students. We explored the relation between sexual harassment and negative outcomes (trauma symptoms, campus safety, and institutional betrayal) while also considering associations with other types of victimization (sexual assault, stalking, and dating violence) during graduate school. Our results update and extend prior research on sexual harassment of graduate students; graduate-level female students continue to experience significantly more sexual harassment from faculty, staff, and students than their male counterparts, and sexual harassment is significantly associated with negative outcomes after considering other forms of victimization. Leaders in the academic community and therapists can apply these findings in their work with sexually harassed students to destigmatize the experience, validate the harm, and work toward preventing future incidents.

Associated Article: Sexual harassment compromises graduate students' safety by Marina Rosenthal, Alec Smidt, and Jennifer Freyd, The Conversation, 18 May 2016.


Birrell, P.J., Bernstein, R.E., & Freyd, J.J. (in press).  With the fierce and loving embrace of another soul: Finding connection and meaning after the profound disconnection of betrayal trauma.  Invited for E.M. Altmaier (Ed), Reconstructing Meaning after Trauma: Theory, Research and Practice. Academic Press.

.

 

 


Wright, N.M., Smith, C.P., & Freyd, J.J. (in press) Experience of a lifetime: Study abroad, trauma, and institutional betrayal. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma.

.

On-line Publication:

Naomi M. Wright, Carly P. Smith & Jennifer J. Freyd (2016): Experience
of a Lifetime: Study Abroad, Trauma, and Institutional Betrayal.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2016.1170088

 

Rosenthal, M.N. & Freyd, J.J. (in press). Silenced by betrayal: The path from childhood trauma to diminished sexual communication in adulthood. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma.

On-line Publication:

Marina N. Rosenthal & Jennifer J. Freyd (2016): Silenced by Betrayal: The
Path from Childhood Trauma to Diminished Sexual Communication in Adulthood
. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2016.1175533


Freyd, J.J. (in press). A Brief Report on the Status of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.  [Editorial]  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Scheduled for volume 17, Issue #5 (2016).

 

On-line Accepted Version: A Brief Report on the Status of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. DOI:10.1080/15299732.2016.1215126


Gomez, J.M., Smith, C.P, Gobin, R.L., Tang, S.S., & Freyd, J.J. (in press). Collusion, Torture, and Inequality: Understanding the Actions of the American Psychological Association as Institutional Betrayal [Editorial].  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Scheduled for volume 17, Issue #5 (2016).

 

On-line Accepted Version: Collusion, Torture, and Inequality: Understanding the actions of the American Psychological Association as Institutional Betrayal. DOI: 10.1080/15299732.2016.1214436


Becker Blease, K. & Freyd, J.J. (in press) Additional Questions about the Applicability of "False Memory" Research [Commentary]. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Advance online version

 


Platt, M.G., Luoma, J.B, & Freyd, J.J. (in press) Shame and dissociation in survivors of high and low betrayal trauma. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma.

 

 


Lewis, J. & Freyd, J.J. (in press). Recovered Memory. In A. Wenzel (Ed.) The Sage Encyclopedia Of Abnormal And Clinical Psychology. Sage.

 

 


Smith, C.P., Cunningham, S., & Freyd, J.J. (in press).  Sexual Violence, Institutional Betrayal, and Psychological Outcomes for LGB College Students. Translational Issues in Psychological Science.

 

 


 

Return to Freyd Dynamics Lab

If you are interested in participating in funding Jennifer Freyd's research please use the on-line donation form or contact Professor Freyd at jjf@uoregon.edu